Home

Like Shoot to Thrill - An AC/DC Tribute on Facebook!

An authentic tribute of AC/DC that covers the best of the Bon Scott era and the best of Brian Johnson's material

Who's Online?

We have 832 guests online

Atom RSS

feed-image Feed Entries
The Biz of Baseball :: Business of Sports Network
Podcast: Mike Dee of Fenway Sports Group PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 217
PoorBest 
Sports Business Radio Podcasts
Written by Sports Business Radio   
Saturday, 10 March 2007 10:18

Mike DeeThe following audio interview (MP3) is with Mike Dee, the president of Fenway Sports Group. (play the interview below)

Dee was also named as Red Sox Chief Operating Officer March 7, 2004, less than 2 years after he joined the club as Executive Vice President/Business Affairs on July 15, 2002. The nine-year baseball veteran manages the club's business operations.

Below are excerpts from the interview, courtesy of Sports Business Radio

On the arrival of Daisuke Matsuzaka and the plan to promote the Red Sox brand in Japan:

"I don't think we've seen anything that rivals this in terms of fan interest and just attention. You know what we're hoping to do obviously is convert that (fan interest and attention) eventually in to business. And I say 'eventually' because you know, this was not an investment that we made with an eye on a quick hit. The longer term goal is to lay the ground work and foundation in Japan for Japanese corporations to invest in Fenway Park and invest in the Red Sox and obviously that is driven by expanding our fan base in Japan and throughout Asia."

On the impact of Daisuke Matsuzaka on Tokyo to Boston travel:

"When we announced we signed Daisuke, there weren't direct flights, believe it or not, from Tokyo to Boston. Now I know two or three airlines are in the process of adding direct flights during the baseball season. That's a clear and measurable impact of what we'll see."

On the intense media interest in Daisuke Matsuzaka:

"We think this is only the tip of the iceberg. As we get in to the season, we're expanding the press box at Fenway Park to accommodate all of the new interest. Hopefully we'll find ourselves in a playoff/postseason situation where I think we're going to have to lease space across the street to handle all of the international media that would have an interest. We're in a standing room only situation and I think we've roughly doubled the size of the press box by annexing some space that was previously back of the house space and I think we're up to 226 positions in the media area."

On the new Fenway Roush Racing venture:

Sports Business Radio"We love racing. We love the fundamentals of NASCAR. The business, the extraordinary growth that's taken place over the last decade is unparalleled. Viewership levels are second only to the NFL. We just think its a great compliment to our core business and we're excited to be in the sport.

This interview is courtesy of Sports Business Radio, and is published by permission. 

 
TOMS: Why MLB is Thriving.... and Dying PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 545
PoorBest 
Pete Toms Article Archive
Written by Pete Toms   
Monday, 10 February 2014 15:02

MLBEarlier this winter I listened to a sports radio segment where 2 Toronto sports pundits attempted to explain the seemingly counter - intuitive news that MLB annual revenues have climbed to upwards of $8 billion.

On the one hand, they noted, steadily diminishing national TV ratings (including ASG and WS), reveal that baseball is clearly less popular. And hasn’t the NFL, long ago, and by a wide margin, supplanted MLB as the dominant pro sports league? And wasn’t it, after all, inevitable? Isn’t baseball anachronistic? From a slower, analogue, monolithic popular culture?

On the other hand, they understood why MLB revenues have skyrocketed. The biggest factor being the enormous increase in TV $$ from both national, and especially, local deals. Plus, attendance is stable, at near-record levels. And yes, almost ironically, slow, staid MLB has better exploited the internet than any of the other so-called Big 4.

They’re right, on both counts. Yes, baseball is dying. And the evidence is not found in the diminished national TV ratings (TV ratings are down for all programming except the NFL) but in who, and who isn’t, watching. Old guys, not young guys, like baseball. Jonathan Mahler was amongst those who reported this fall that the median age of the 2012 WS TV viewer was 53.4. Perhaps more telling is the steady, long-term decline in the number of kids playing baseball.

But it is precisely because MLB fans are old that business is booming. The huge boost in MLB TV $$ comes from us old guys who subscribe to Pay TV. We are footing the bill for the recent spate of MLB mega deals with local RSNs. We aren’t the cord-cutting, digital natives who have never paid for content. They believe that paying $100/month to watch video is stupid. Earlier in the year Joe Flint reported that, “By 2015, almost half of all television viewing will be done by folks over the age of 50…” The migration of local MLB broadcasts from free over-the-air TV to Pay TV was inevitable. Why? Because MLB fans can afford Pay TV. We are baby boomers, the most affluent generation in history. And baseball fans are the most affluent of sports fans. We complain about our cable bills, we’re old, so we’re allowed. But we’ll still pay for the nightly, pleasant, familiar, tribal, ritualistic pleasures of watching our team on our big TVs, in our comfortable basements. It feels good.

While there is debate about the future prospects for the Pay TV industry, under pressure from OTT, potentially one, or some of, Google, Apple and Aereo, and politicians and regulators sabre-rattling over channel bundling…. in the present, it’s still thriving. And as long as MLB continues to aggregate large TV audiences of purchasers of financial services, luxury autos and ED remedies , there’ll be plenty of money in it for them.

You can follow me on Twitter @PeteToms


Pete Toms is senior writer for the Business of Sports Network, most notably, The Biz of Baseball. He looks forward to your comments and can be contacted through The Biz of Baseball.

Follow The Biz of Baseball on Twitter Twitter

 
Exclusive Clip: Sports Unfiltered with Dennis Miller PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 174
PoorBest 
Dennis Miller
Written by Maury Brown   
Sunday, 02 December 2007 15:51

Through the Business of Sports Network's partnership with Sinuate Media, we offer up clips of Sports Unfiltered with Dennis Miller each week.

This week, we offer up a super exclusive clip, only available on The Biz of Baseball

Click Here! 

Select Read More to see this week's super exclusive clip 

Read more...
 
5 Questions with... Rob Neyer PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 193
PoorBest 
5 Questions With...
Written by Maury Brown   
Monday, 17 September 2007 01:18

Rob NeyerWhen it came time to select an interview subject for our One-Year Anniversary Celebration, it was really no contest. There may be more powerful figures in sports (Bud Selig, I’m still awaiting your call). There may be more controversial subjects (Ditto for you, Barry), but Rob Neyer seemed a perfect fit for a number of reasons.

For one, while I really dislike how some view the word “blog” (look, I don’t live in my mother’s basement and don’t post dribble like, “Who’s the Hottest Wife in MLB?”), the fact is, for now, The Biz of Baseball is an alternative electronic media outlet (read: blog). Neyer has been the one guy who was able to bridge the gap between mainstream and alternative media during his long career (11 years and running) as a senior baseball writer for ESPN.com. Rob is arguably the “crossover guy” – the man able to take the heady world of objective analysis and make it cool to all in the mainstream. Bill James may have been his mentor, but Rob was able to present it in a way that everyone could easily digest.

He’s also spun several books that are entertaining was well as informative. Whether it has been "The Neyer/James Guide to Pitchers" (with Bill James) or "Rob Neyer's Big Book of Baseball Blunders" or Rob’s upcoming Big Book on baseball myths, his style of writing rarely seems to offend, and often brings a smile.

Neyer is also accessible. This isn’t something being said because the guy was willing to an interview, it’s that in the years I've known him, he’s been one of the nicest and easily approachable people in the media. That, and rarely do most allow you to rifle through their personal research library.

So, on the one-year anniversary of The Biz of Baseball, we present, “5 Questions with… Rob Neyer. - Maury Brown

(Select Read More to see Neyer’s interview)


Maury Brown

Maury Brown is the founder and president of the Business of Sports Network, which includes The Biz of Baseball, The Biz of Football and The Biz of Basketball (The Biz of Hockey will be launching shortly). He is also a contributor to Baseball Prospectus.

He looks forward to your comments via email and can be contacted here.

Read more...
 
Review: Diamond Dollars & The Baseball Economist PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 151
PoorBest 
Book Reviews
Written by Andrew Zimbalist   
Monday, 10 December 2007 20:00

Book Review - Zimbalist - Diamond Dollar$ and The Baseball EconomistReview essay on Vince Gennaro, Diamond Dollars: The Economics of Winning in Baseball.
Hingham, Ma.: Maple Street Press, 2007, 253 pp.,

and

J.C. Bradbury, The Baseball Economist: The Real Game Exposed.
New York: Dutton, 2007, 336 pp.

By

Andrew Zimbalist [1]
Department of Economics
Smith CollegeNorthampton, Ma. 01063

Sports economics books seem to be plentiful these days.  The 2007 season brought two new monographs: Diamond Dollars: The Economics of Winning in Baseball by Vince Gennaro and The Baseball Economist: The Real Game Exposed by J.C. Bradbury.  Each attempts to tackle a distinct area within the grasp of economic analysis. 

(See J.C. Bradbury's response to this review on the Sabernomics website) 

(See Vince Genarro's response to this review on the Maple Street Press website) 

Diamond Dollars is the more ambitious of the two.  Gennaro assays nothing less than an uncovering of the mysteries of the baseball economy and purports to offer a model for small market teams to be successful.  Gennaro covers a wide range of issues, from the relationship between winning and revenues, to the value of players, the dynamics of player development, a strategy for assembling a winning team and building a team brand.

Along the way, Gennaro reveals a basic understanding of the economics of baseball and, although not a formally-trained economist himself, a reasonable understanding of rudimentary microeconomic analysis.  He addresses many disparate topics, but his core concept is the “win curve.”  While there is nothing particularly novel here, Gennaro’s presentation puts a different spin on the marginal revenue of winning.   Basically, he argues that the relevant range of wins per season is between 70 and 105.  Below 70 or above 105 wins, he asserts, there is no relationship between winning and revenues.  Within the range, there is a sweet spot between 86 and 91 wins that is the threshold for making it to the postseason, and, consequently, it is within this sweet spot that there is the highest incremental return to winning.  Making it to the playoffs, according to Gennaro, has its biggest impact by increasing a team’s revenues in succeeding years.  For teams below 70 wins, Gennaro’s thesis is that winning a few extra games brings them essentially no new revenue, meaning they have little incentive to spend on free agents, whether or not they receive transfers from the wealthy teams. 

So far, so good.  But here Gennaro hits a brick wall.  His text suggests that he has subjected his theory to rigorous modeling and testing, yet he provides the reader with next to no information on how he has executed his empirical analysis.  The few bits of explanation he does provide fail to inspire confidence.

For instance, Gennaro apparently has done some regression analysis where revenue is the dependent variable and team wins in the current and previous years are two of the arguments.  We are not informed what the other independent variables are, nor are we told whether the relationship is tested linearly, nor for what years it is tested.  Curiously, Gennaro does state that he has weighted the current and lagged team wins equally and that he has run a regression separately for each team to capture its distinct win curve.  It is not clear how many years of data he has in each team regression or why he did not instead use team dummies and interactive variables in a pooled regression to identify these effects.

Furthermore, Gennaro estimates his revenue data.  Here he makes some reasonable assumptions, but he also misses his target on some sources of revenue.  Despite these problems, Gennaro intrepidly forges ahead, glibly making specific claims about various teams’ win curves.  Unfortunately, most of the rest of Diamond Dollars suffers from similar weaknesses.

Detailed problems appear throughout the book.  Here is a small sample of these difficulties.  Gennaro does not adequately source his discussion.  The few footnotes and citations he does provide often confuse or obfuscate the matter.  He claims that he has developed a model to evaluate players’ productivity, but he neither explains the model nor does he cite the pioneering work of Gerald Scully in this field or its lineage.   Later in the book, Gennaro appears to assert authorship of the idea that baseball’s revenue sharing would be more effective if it were based on the value of a team’s market, rather than on a team’s revenue.  Yet this position has been amply discussed in the professional and journalistic literature.  Indeed, it is even incorporated into MLB’s latest collective bargaining agreement, which Gennaro entirely misses.  

Gennaro also makes inaccurate claims about financial data.  For example, he states that the NFL “generates over $2.5 billion in annual broadcast revenues” and that “about 80 percent of the NFL’s $5 billion in revenue is shared” (p. 4).  The correct numbers would be over $3.5 billion, about 70 percent, and over $6 billion.  On the next page, he writes that “$40 million from MLB’s central fund” is distributed equally to each team annually.  The actual number in the last two years has been under $30 million.  Such errors are not catastrophic, except when one tries to make detailed claims about a team’s revenue or a player’s value.

Gennaro devotes an entire chapter to teams’ player development systems.  Here too there are broad generalizations and data inaccuracies that mar his discussion.  He estimates that an average team devotes $12 million yearly to its player development system (scouting, signing bonuses, operation of minor league affiliates.)  The actual average is almost 50 percent higher.  In a footnote, however, Gennaro states that his estimate excludes international scouting and bonuses, perhaps accounting for the lower number.  Yet, it is curious why he would exclude the international aspect of player development, when today almost half of all minor leaguers come from outside the continental United States. 

One of the book’s concluding chapters is entitled “A Strategic Approach to Assembling the Roster.”  Here Gennaro uses his hidden statistical method to find that the ratio of player productivity to player salary reveals that per dollar of output pitchers cost 14 percent more than position players and that left-handed pitchers cost 17 percent more.  The inference is that team general managers should be particularly cautious in overpaying for these positions.  The important question that Gennaro does not address is that if his estimates are correct, why doesn’t the market correct itself over time?  And if the market does correct itself, what is left of his policy recommendations?  The unstartling punch line of this chapter is that low-revenue clubs can be successful by depending less on free agents and more on developing players out of their own farm system.

In his chapter on building a team brand, Gennaro offers a host of broad sweep generalizations and arbitrary weights to make standard, prosaic recommendations common to the marketing literature.  One of his more remarkable statements is found on pages 193-194.  To wit: “A team that tries to get through a season with a roster filled with fringe players and minor league prospects is testing the patience of its fans and risking its credibility.  Even the 56-win Kansas City Royals had proven major leaguers on their 2005 squad.  Matt Stairs and Terrence Long, along with their star player Mike Sweeney, complemented a host of youngsters.  For all their faults in the 2005 season, the Royals maintained the credibility and trust of their fans by not ridding themselves of Sweeney’s $11 million contract.  For the 2006 season, the Royals loaded up on mature talent with Reggie Sanders, Doug Mientkiewicz, Mark Redman, and Mark Grudzielanek, giving hope to the K.C. faithful.”  This worthy team won 62 of its 162 games in 2006. 

Gennaro’s closing chapter has some gems on the stadium economic impact literature.  On page 238, he writes: “The stadium dialogue seems to quickly degenerate into a ‘he said-she said’ by ‘greedy owners’ and ‘ungrateful municipalities’ about who gets the most benefit from a new ballpark and consequently, the appropriate mix of public versus private funding.  The two sides seem to argue so vehemently out of self-interest, citing the results of previous parks, selectively choosing the data that fits their points of view, that they neglect to get at the key issue.  ‘Do stadiums enhance the local economy?’ may be the wrong question.  The right question is ‘Under what conditions can stadiums enhance the local economy?’”  He goes on to claim that if a team plays more day games that it will help local commerce more and, therefore, cities should bargain in their lease agreements to have teams play more day games.  His discussion here is either disingenuous or completely ignorant of the academic literature on the subject of economic impact. 

In the end, Gennaro’s monograph misses its mark.  His treatment of baseball’s economic system offers little of academic value, general reader interest, or team management assistance. 

J.C. Bradbury’s The Baseball Economist is a collection of wide-ranging essays on different elements of the game that the author believes are amenable to economic or statistical analysis.  The quality of these essays is sharply uneven, with the stronger contributions related to evaluating on-field performance. His topics range from why there are no left-handed catchers, to valuing the worth of a pitching coach, whether having a strong on-deck batter actually helps the current batter or not, why there are more hit batsmen in the American League, a game theory treatment of the game’s steroid problem, assessing the role of entrepreneurial behavior in the front office, an evaluation of the competitive balance issue, an introduction to sabermetrics, how much a ballplayer is worth,  and whether MLB is  a monopoly.  Below I consider some of the collection’s high points and low points.  The latter, unfortunately, are more plentiful.

My favorite Bradbury entry convincingly attacks a longstanding baseball myth -- a strong on-deck batter helps the current batter.  Bradbury uses data from 1984-1992 to test this relationship and what he comes up with is the following: for every 100 points higher is the OPS (on-base percentage plus slugging percentage of the current batter) of the on-deck batter, the current batter will walk 2.6 percent less, will have a 1.1 percent lower batting average and will hit 3.0 percent fewer home runs.  He controls for the OPS of the current batter, the game situation, the ballpark and other factors.  Hence, Bradbury concludes that a strong on-deck batter does create an incentive for the pitcher not to walk the current batter, but it also encourages the pitcher to add focus and make tougher pitches in the strike zone, thereby lowering the current hitter’s average and power.  While these relationships are statistically significant, their actual impact is very small.  His conclusion appears solid and one wonders how long it will take before Joe Buck, Tim McCarver, Jon Miller, et al. catch on. 

Bradbury’s chapter on whether it pays for a manager to argue with the umpire is provocative, but unsatisfying.  He describes the phenomenon of a manager protesting a call as rent-seeking behavior.  The manager attempts to bully the ump, so that the ump will remember the unpleasant experience and will think twice before making another close call against the manager’s team.  Bradbury suggests that sometimes the managers succeed in this endeavor, though the statistical evidence he presents is too weak to support his claim.  It is rent seeking because there is no net gain, no output increase, just a transfer of marginal calls from one team to another.  Meanwhile, the fans, according to Bradbury, have their utility lowered because they have to spend a few extra minutes at the game due to these fits of managerial distemper.  Well maybe, but it is also possible that the fans enjoy managerial protests both because they are amusing and because it vicariously vents their own frustration at bad umpire calls.  As for a few extra minutes at the ballpark – hey, it’s baseball.

In another interesting essay, Bradbury assembles evidence that Leo Mazzone is actually a pitching coach who makes a positive difference.  Bradbury compares pitchers performance under Mazzone with their performance before and after working with him.  The evidence appears to support superior skills for Mazzone.  Bradbury also explains Mazzone’s philosophy and method.  Mazzone has now been pitching coach for the Baltimore Orioles for two years.  Perhaps it is time for corroboratory evidence. 

From here the book goes downhill.  In one chapter Bradbury discusses the presumed advantage that big city teams have.  He concludes that (p. 80): “the advantage appears to be slight and virtually meaningless.”  His argument here is sloppy.  Bradbury’s simple regression finds that variance in city size accounts for 40 percent of the variance in win percentage over a period of years.  This seems to indicate a rather substantial impact of city size.  Further, the author fails to consider the interactive effect of city size and a team owning its own regional sports channel (RSN), the number of large corporations in the market, or the size of MLB’s assigned team television market – three factors that would have reinforced the effect of city size.  Along the way, Bradbury misapprehends the functioning of the amateur draft and overlooks the unequalizing effect of the posting system with Japanese baseball.

In his chapter on what makes for an effective front office, Bradbury singles out two desiderata: having a good team on the field and having a low payroll.  Of course, all teams would like that combination, but no team can win every year on a modest payroll.  A franchise is a business and there are more factors behind whether or not it will be a successful organization, including effective promotional efforts, good relations with and involvement in the host community, charitable activities, new investments, and profitability, among others.  Bradbury then attempts to quantify team rankings by adding up the value produced by all the players on each team and subtracting team payroll, yielding his “net value of team play.”  Every team has a positive net value except his lowest ranking team, the Yankees with a negative net value of $29.8 million during 2003-05.  This anomalous result comes from the wrongheaded methodology he uses to estimate player marginal revenue product (to be discussed below) and from the narrow definition he adopts to define team success. 

His chapter on steroids in baseball employs game theory to model the choice that a player makes whether or not to indulge.  He argues that when every player chooses to use steroids it is a Nash equilibrium.  This result, however, appears to depend on his arbitrarily chosen values for the supposed productivity gain and the health costs (only $500,000) from indulgence.  Bradbury’s analysis ignores the enormous uncertainty that surrounds this choice for players.

Another chapter, “Scouts and Stat-Heads,” provides a generally useful introduction to sabermetric analysis, but Bradbury gets a bit starry-eyed over the presumed power of sabermetrics.  On page 147, for instance, Bradbury writes: “Old ways and old scouting methods may disappear, but the end result is a good one for the fan: better and cheaper baseball.”  No team is contemplating the elimination of traditional scouting methods, nor is one likely to in the future.  New statistical methods have been employed to supplement, not supplant, traditional scouting. 

Bradbury’s essay “How to Judge a Hitter or a Pitcher” also overplays the sabermetric hand.  Baseball analysts frequently refer to a statistic called hitting with “runners in scoring position” (RISP).  It is meant to represent how effective a clutch hitter a player is.  Bradbury says folderol:   “The problem is that hitting with RISP is not a skill … but a statistical anomaly.” (p. 155)  “If hitting with RISP is something a hitter can purposely alter, I have a hard time believing he is holding something back in non-RISP situations” (p. 156).  There you have it – there is no such thing as clutch hitting.  This is an awfully linear, materialist view of the world where a player’s emotions and his state of physical depletion over a 162-game season play no role.   Further, Bradbury is being inconsistent.  In his chapter about the on-deck batter, he asserted that a pitcher can ramp it up and pitch more carefully and effectively to the current batter when a strong batter is on deck.  So, in Bradbury’s world, pitchers can focus and pitch in the clutch, but hitters can’t turn the same trick.  Later in the chapter, Bradbury endorses the proposition from Moneyball that on-base percentage (OBP) is three times as important as slugging percentage (SLG).  He arrives at this outcome by running a multiple regression of runs on batting average, OBP and SLG.  The coefficient on OBP is almost three times that on SLG.  The problem here is not only that the arguments are collinear and the coefficients are less reliable, but that SLG  (it counts a homerun as four hits, a triple as three, etc.) is a much higher number than OBP.  The coefficient, therefore, will necessarily be smaller on SLG.  If elasticity is used instead of the estimated coefficient, OBP is 1.8 times greater than SLG.

Bradbury also discusses the assessment of pitching skills in this chapter.  The main argument here is that a pitcher’s ERA from one year to the next is highly variable, but that a pitcher’s walks, strikes and home runs allowed are more stable over time.  The inference is that ERA depends more on outside factors, such as a team’s fielding prowess, and, hence, is a poor measure of the inherent skills of a pitcher.  While there is something compelling to this logic, it seems caution is in order.  First, a pitcher’s skills may actually vary from year to year, along with his ERA, as other factors change, such as, his ballpark, his pitching coach, his bullpen, his team’s offense, the angle of his arm slot, his confidence level, etc.  This variability does not mean that the skill is spurious.  Second, if all we consider is strikeouts, walks and home runs, what are we saying about sinkerball pitchers who induce groundballs or pitchers who throw fastballs with movement or offspeed pitches that induce weak swings and popups?  Didn’t Bradbury already write that with a strong on-deck batter, pitchers can pitch more effectively within the strike zone? 

Next, Bradbury offers a chapter on the worth of a ballplayer.  He gets off to a bad start here by misrepresenting the functioning of the players’ market and the terms of the collective bargaining agreement.  He then misspecifies his team revenue function, leaving out RSN ownership, the number of large corporations in the host market, the size of the team’s assigned television territory, among other factors.  But the fatal problem is that Bradbury’s methodology unwittingly identifies a player’s average revenue product, not his marginal revenue product.  By his reckoning, all of a team’s revenue is attributed to the players, leaving nothing left over for front offices expenses, stadium expenses, minor league operations, or profits.  Given this misstep, it is not surprising that Bradbury finds players at all levels (under reserve, arbitration eligible and free agents) are paid less than what he estimates they are worth.

Bradbury then moves on to the baseball product market, asking “Is MLB a Monopoly?”  Bucking all scholarly analysis and legal decisions on the question, Bradbury writes (p. 201): “I’m not sure MLB is a monopoly.”  Then, in a comedy of errors, he explains his ambivalence.  He writes that Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis’ decision that baseball was not interstate commerce gave the game its antitrust exemption and that (p. 203) “the Supreme Court has upheld the Landis decision on several occasions.”  Here Bradbury is confusing two cases.  The first was a suit brought by the owners of the Federal League teams in January 1915 against baseball’s reserve clause.  This case went before Judge Landis. Landis, however, never issued a decision.  The parties settled at the end of the year.  The second was a litigation brought by the owners of the Baltimore Terrapins of the Federal League because they did not believe that the terms of the settlement were fair to their franchise.  After losing in district court (where Landis played no role), baseball appealed the decision and won.  The Terrapins then appealed before the Supreme Court, where the case was heard in April 1922.  A few months later the Supreme Court decided in baseball’s favor and the antitrust exemption was born. 

Bradbury then distorts the record further by asserting (p. 205): “At the heart of the argument that MLB acts like a monopolist is the existence of the antitrust exemption.”  He cites no sources for this claim, because there are none.  Each team sport league is a monopolist because it is the sole producer of its product and has no close substitutes.  The NFL has no blanket exemption and it is a monopoly; likewise the NBA.  Bradbury then writes referring to the NFL, NBA, NHL and MLB that “each of these enjoys some antitrust exemptions for collective bargaining with labor unions ….”  Here, of course, it is not an exemption granted to the leagues, but a general statutory exemption granted to all labor unions by the Clayton Act of 1914.  Similarly, the non-statutory exemption --which enables a union to surrender certain labor market rights in exchange for other benefits in arms’ length bargaining --  applies generally to all U.S. industries.  Bradbury continues (p. 208): “There is no strong evidence that the antitrust exemption provides any monopoly privileges to MLB other than protecting it from expensive lawsuits.”  While the value of baseball’s exemption today is not what it used to be, there is still a good case to be made that MLB’s minor leagues and perhaps its amateur draft could not exist in their present form were it not for the exemption.  (This matter is actually rather complicated because any of these arrangements can be subjected to a rule of reason interpretation, balancing their pro- and anti-competitive effects.)

Bradbury’s last essay argues that the market for top-level professional baseball in the United States is contestable.  If this were true, then the earlier question about whether or not MLB is a monopoly might be moot.  Here Bradbury makes two points.  First, if there is an aspect of the industry that is not a natural monopoly and, hence, constitutes an artificial barrier to entry, it is the subsidies from local governments that teams receive for the construction of their stadiums.  But, he avers, this is not really an issue because (p. 220) “the public does not seem averse to subsidizing major sports teams from leagues other than the dominant existing league.”  It is clear that Bradbury has never been involved in starting a new or non-dominant league.  His notion that politicians are not averse to providing subsidies to teams from these upstart leagues is just plain wrong.  Second, Bradbury goes on to argue that MLB’s market is contestable.  He does this by discussing the emergence of the American Association in 1882 and the American League in 1901.  He further adduces what he erroneously calls the “Central League” (real name: the Continental League) forcing baseball to expand the number of its teams in 1961.  Leaving details aside, the difficulty with Bradbury’s claim is that the industry’s economic structure today is very different from what it was 57 or 120 years ago. 

Bradbury, then, whiffs in his effort to expand his analysis beyond the narrow confines of the baseball diamond.  After a promising beginning, The Baseball Economist fails in its intent to expose the real game.


[1] Reprinted from the Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 45, no. 4 (December 2007).

Andrew ZimbalistAndrew Zimbalist is the is the Robert A. Woods professor of economics at Smith College, and is a contributor to the Business of Sports Network. His Author Profile can be accessed here. Read interviews with Zimbalist on the current MLB Collective Bargaining Agreement, as well as an earlier interview on MLB in general.

 
«StartPrev12345678910NextEnd»

Page 1 of 1074
 
Banner

Poll

Should MLB Force Jeffery Loria to Sell the Marlins?
 


effects ofviagra in women brand name viagra online canada torsemide medications promethazine codeine side effects dikloron ampullectomy online antibuse orders walgreens take care clinic wichita ks vipps online phamarcy ed pills canada noroxin shampoo direct pharmacy usa viagra sans ordonnance carbimazole tablets side effects mobic meloxicam 15mg side effects precio viagra warfarin diet foods viagra super p force propecia reviews drugs penicillin vk online no prescription duvadilan side effects tablets generic levitra online no prescription antibiotics for sinus infection side effects pcm pharmacy clonidine 0.1 mg picture two unisom tablets levitra side effects long term indian pharmacies mail order generic for viagra in united states viagra tablets price in india requip medication for parkinsons disease avalide 150 12.5 mg hydroxyzine hcl 10mg for dogs international pharmacy tryptizol information assurance online viagra pharmacy rush cialis online generic cialis safety colchicine 0.6 mg side effects yasmine hamdan ya nass meclizine medication side effects hytrin generic names diarex pro series silicone babies propecia brand cialis tabs sale diamox dosages kamagra uk pay with paypal florinef 0.1 mg picture troppo cialis albuterol nebulizer treatment cpt code generic viagra shipped to po box clozapine drug abuse norlevo pill side effect dynamogen drug interactions escitalopram oxalate 20 mg side effects viprogra professional supplement levofloxacin 500 mg side effects with alcohol reductil pastile de slabit zein estrotab 2mg valium dutasteride canada ssri sales online xl pharmacy cialis phentermine information forumpheromones naproxen medication 500mg vente viagra au maroc venda cytotec where does alli simpson shop metformin for sale azithromycin prescription free orlistat weight loss pictures crestor generic name restonite reviews 50 nbrx pharmacy next day delivery fempro 2 5mg hydrocodone best on line pharmacy xanax overdose symptoms lorinol tablets computers elimite cream over the counter pravachol to lipitorpravastatin buy propecia without doctor lasix on line atarax side effects anxiety pletal cilostazol medication pletal barr pharmaceuticals claravis coupons plendil 5mg price sertralina 50 mg en espaol sildenafil sri lanka buy eltroxin online no prescription uk kamagra oral jelly 100 mg in german where to buy cialis viagra samples for sale locacid no prescription buy lotrisone canadian fanegada colombia quick ship viagra paypal accepted candadian pharmacies equivalencia simvastatina atorvastatina viagra aus holland optimmune dogs best price percocet and alcohol combination donepezil hcl side effects paxil for anxiety and depression ketorolac 10mg is it a narcotic atarax dosages tretinoin cream u s p tantalum capacitors esr shared care ca loc:br ranitidine zantac contraindications viagra czech republic canadian pharmaceuticals tadalafil canadian pharma carprofen 100mg chewable femara drug for infertility alendronate sodium fosamax 70 mg tadalafil 20 mg tablets price in rupees side effects of eltroxin tablets is global pharmacy canada legitimate fosamax osteoporosis medicine prednisone from austalia unisom sleep tabs dosage ketorolac eye drops side effects buspirone side effects dose tetracycline for sale american pills cialis baytril dogs antibiotic side effects india buy proventil online lipitor by mail metallica through the never dvd ropinirole hydrochloride generic stieva a cream proscar hair growth leponex lek carbimazole treatment dose acyclovircareprost my canadian pharmacy phone number buy cialis online in usa buy viagara overnight shipping pharmacyexpress canada dikloron tablet cases evista generic raloxifene estrace side effects estrace cream side effects ezetimibe costcofamvir 5mg generic cialis yasmin le bon and daughters ed hardy online india sureway transportation agent login rhinocort nasal spray side effects order zanaflex online buy original viagra implicane sertralina para norstan apparel shops inc bactrim side effects in men betnesol eye ointment colchicine treatment patients canadian pharmacy 24h reviews nitrazepam tablets wholesale generic viagra mexican sertraline hcl 50 mg tablet looks like soviclor tabs and lyrics viagra super active generi body building forum clomid online birth control pill cheap cialis paypal canada vpxl pill store erexin ingredients in beer how much does viagra cost per pill 337 pil cytotec ibuprofen and alcohol doctor bentyl 20 mg tablets costco auto program tires abilify cheap price puppies for adoption in michigan where to buy nizagara cozaar medicine for high blood pressure amlodipine side effects viagra online for men xalatan side effects in dogs analgin side effects buy viagra professional cleocin side effects medication flazol medicine binotal 500 indicaciones lumenex unisom and pregnancy and nausea best drugstore foundation for dry skin viagra before and after photos cefabiot cefuroxima normon valium overdose antidote canada zovirax acyclovir septra and jock itch how to order viagra no prescription levitra per pay pal zahlen apertium traductor ingles km online pharmacy sofilex side effect melovax 15mg percocet podofilox solution works prednisone side effects in dogs shaking robaxin for sale no lamisil side effects medication order meds online no prescription valtrex while pregnant and breastfeeding cheap albuterol and viagra donde comprar cialis en chile kamgara sold in malaysia clomiphene citrate sale buy dyazide viagra generic rezeptfrei paypal cialis canada pharmacy online amiloride side effects apetamin ingredients to die chigualos cortos orchard pharmacy house canadian health and care mall valtrex dosage for shingles where to buy off market viagra clavamox dogs singapore accutane online zolpidem pharmacy canadian tretinoin cream 0.025 coupons insulin international pharmacy ropinirole hydrochloride requip kamagra for sale uk i want to buy clomid online parlodel drug interactions decadron dosage for pediatrics cheap eurovan zopiclone epanutin drugstore salazopyrin medication for anxiety thalidomide side effects on children flos medicinae generic cialis sildenafil citrate ip generisches viagra zyvoxid 600mg caffeine 2061 buy malegra dxt 130 mg clomid for men singulair medication over the counter bg onlain filmi s bg audio buy suprax online cheap dapsone rx one pharmacy canada non generic cozaar medication picture duloxetine dosage uk windsor canada online pharmacy buy letrozole canada citalopram and viagra alendronate sodium 70 mg side effects levothroid side effects hair loss digoxina presentacion keflex side effects in dogs atarax no script esomeprazole magnesium over the counter metallica one lyrics oh please cheapest kamagra paypal augmentin 875 125 for sinus infection canadian drugs no prescription needed suprax 400mg for sinus infection eurax scabies treatment flexeril medication reviewsflexidol kamagra oral jelly next day delivery indocin 50 mg side effects cialis online brand name cyclivex 200mg to ml cong dung renapril 5mg xanax shop promethazine codeine prescription free viagra lexapro dosage for anxiety pregnant baby foot why does cialis cost so much paxil weight gain aprovel irbesartan hypertensive patients cymbalta coupons antidepressant brand viagra online canadian pharmacy cialis and levitra cialis generic uk is there a shortage of pantoprazole zyloprim side effects zenerx reviews amazon suprax cefixime side effects lotrisone cream uses where can you buy podofilox over the counter green line pharmacy 365 pills netabana canadaian pharmacy mall amoxilin without prescription uk sinequanone meanings probenecid gout attacks bactrim side effects constipation price of viagra without insurance paxil reviews for social anxiety combivent side effects dose viagra online orders retin a cream mail order sales produit 90 can i use bactrim for sinus infection order nizagara online lamotrigine 200 mg picture mtabs reviews on apidexin estrotab efectos secundarios zineryt cenar aciphex rabeprazole sodium tablets zolpidem er 12.5mg images buy generic propecia 1mg online terbinafine cream for dogs adipex side effects blog clozaril medication norfloxacin 400mg en espaol avodart hair loss fda approval synthroid over the counter bentyl 10mg price propecia without prescription diamox sequels 500 mg cap sdmd propepsa sucralfate sotalol side effects in dogs cholesterol guidelines 2014 american heart association viagra brand cheap instant erection pill detrol la medication generic legitimate antibiotic websites generic for lo ovral 28 how long should you take zyban to quit smokingzyloprim sureway transportation co viagra online indian pharmacy 5 diflucan information for patients morphine sulfate side effects mayo clinic lidocaine patch for back pain dostinex side effects cabergoline bodybuilding evista generic name cialis drug 5 mg canada cialis from india tadalafil buy levitra next day delivery faridexon fortegames escitalopram 5mg without prescription will celebrex help restless legs valium dosage doses crestor medication dose side effects what stores sell synthroid gupisone prednisolone 5 mg usage buy brand levitra online cheap xlpharmacy canada map buy zithromax 500mg online cialis with mastercard where to buy ciprofloxacin paypal biaxin xl 500mg information duroval sildenafil 20 atrovent hfa inhaler cost pfizer viagra price sibutramine diet pills viagra shipped from canada noroxin medication identification medsindia reviews side effect of haloperidol medication bevispas tablets with keyboards minocycline acne treatment duration buy sertraline online merck propecia milnacipran for fibromyalgia mestinon overdose symptoms buy furosemide 20mg elavil dosage for migraine prevention can i use lotrisone for yeast infection depakote medication information dicyclomine hydrochloride 20mg topiramate 25mg and weight loss lasik online pharmacy no script picareta server execution generic cialis price comparisons vigra soft uk drugs topiramate for migraine dosage can i buy nexium over the counter insulin resistance symptoms treatment prednisone deltasone manufacturerdentopain potassium nitrate buy viagra from thailand online lotemax side effects eye drops lisinopril 20 mg dose arthritis gloves hands best rated salbutamol nebulizer indication septrin suspension side effects otc primatene mist replacement sureway construction alberta lasix medication diuretics piroxicam medication doctor injectable toradol for migraines ic prednisone 20 mg adderall medication information caffeine pills cvs tesco malarone olanzapine street value metallica one lyrics justice buspar reviews weight kamagra paypal payment uk citalopram side effects medications insulin injection sites diabetes picture topamax and alcohol consumption cypli pharmacy rhinathiol expectorant cough medicine kemadrin vs mirapex side asthma symptoms in toddlers need tamoxifen fast cefixime generic is effexor available in the philippines cost of cialis daily dose viagra online kaufen billig ibuprofen 800mg side effects dose buy leukeran 2mg singulair generic date nautisol 5mg neurocet reviews on fifty 777 tablets mavidol tr plavix manufacturer insert aliviosin indometacina betametasona aftermarket 200 mg celebrex generic viagra sildenafil india finpecia canada where can i buy aldactone online buy metronidazole 500mg diabecon himalaya products usa amerimedrx complaints against companies proscar medication l arginine atrovent inhaler prescribing information can you really order cialis online 149 effexor reviews for fibromyalgia vytorin side effects vytorin news motrin 800mg tablets rx canada pharmacy 365 stockton caprice blond paypal accepted canadian pharmacy xenical with paypal gpchealth coupons for bed sominex sleeping pills side effects online canadian pharmacies safe fucidin hydrocortisone 1 cabergoline drug manufacturer medyka subcarpathian redustat orlistat 120mg feldene flash drug literature dyazide 37 5 25 capital gains rate cheap antibiotics online review cialis price ireland cefaclor 250 mg online pharmacy review cart cyrux misoprostol 200mg to ml levofloxacin antibiotic and alcohol interaction cialis originale on line viagra in abu dhabi secure online pharmacy ciprotab dosage of benadryl selling methotrexate software house international genuine clomid online bactrim cost without insurance cialis soft aus europa orlistat generic celexa withdrawal symptoms drug ayurvedic abortion drug 40mg cialis india celexa drug information buy fda approved cipro nexium coupons for over the counter cardizem generic brand ventolin dosage for infants mavidol sl*maxalt xenical second hand sale uk amlodipine benazepril side effects medication best over the counter viagra whats better synthroid or levothyroxine doxycycline side effects in dogs malaseb dog medicated shampoo terramycin ophthalmic ointment 1/8 oz best drugstore makeup what does vc mean in pharmacy offshore cialis ordering article 68 sildenafil purchase mail order medications from canada buy viagra in san diego micardis manufacturer coupons cheap viagra usa zanaflex medication information sominex ingredients tablets sublingual vitamin b12 liquid naprosyn medication maxman ultimate buy cialis in israel us pharmacies ed pills microcidal vs microstatic speakers permethrin cream side effects where to buy proventil inhaler medication rayrx online drugstore entocort ec samples optimmune eye ointment for dogs arcoxia tablets etoricoxib obat voltaren buy minocin online buying clomid online paypal buy estradiol online no prescription tri levlen generic estrofem 2mg yan etkileri fda canada ceftin antibiotic for strep throat milnacipran hcl savella cialis dosage 2 5 mg buy viagra uk kamagra europa co uk verapamil er 240mg gle cheapest prices on suhagra 100 best pheromones to attract women cozaar 50 mg without a script fertility drugs sinequanone definition of integrity clavamox dosage for kennel cough adderall xr side effects in kids rapid tabs cialis buspirone for anxiety reviews rhine inc generics flexidol tablet comparison eprostol misoprostol side generic medicine of kamagra in ireland angela womens ginseng neurocet with apresflex and fruitex bcalcium viagra depoxetine generic crestor release date champix smoking metronidazole for dogs side effects amsa fast orlistat reviews voltaren resinat dawkowanie colcrys medication for gout vitamix costco schedule dosis ondansetron generic viagras names brand cialis non prescription needed olanzapine and fluoxetine hcl tryptizol tablets side effects mincorp somerset pa zip code duvadilan tablet cordarone medication guide kamagrafast crooks n healt prednisolone to buy bupropion hcl 150mg 12hr sa tab indomethacin 50 mg buy misoprostol online no prescription lopressor medication drug cialis online euro harga salep acyclovir haldol off label uses colchicine buy in canada tretinoin cream 0.1 uses mexican online pharmacies diet pills drugstore cowboy definition nautisol 5mg valacyclovir uk colcrys coupon for cash payers aleve d sinus and cold coupons lesofat price philippines prevacid vs nexium aciphex long term side effects of cialis sildenafit generika 100mg per nachnahme avanafil online buy propecia with paypal avodart online pharmacy pilocarpine hcl medication starcef 100mg diphenhydramine diovan generic available forum cialis soft lesofat philippines website oracef antibiotic cefuroxime medications online uk what works best levitra or viagra buy alli online diclofenac potassium 50mg dosage piroxicam 20mg capsules side effects benemid contraindications for electrical stimulation cheap viagra master card payment 36 hr cialis lexapro coupons 2012 fastest shipping viagra banana muffin recipe overnight drugs no rx azithromycin over the counter obat acyclovir cream starlix medication side effects brand viagra online paypal voltaren gel generic lo ovral generics cialis by canadian health shop prozac and alcohol cravings diflucan yeast infection over the counter clopidogrel side effects in cats forum nifedipine retard 30mg teva asthma action plan form pdf usa viagra delivery canadien pharmacy glipizide and metformin for diabetes flagyl online no prescription buy genuine viagra online viagra before and after benazepril side effects in cats generic levitra uk cymbalta for anxiety cymbalta dosage lady era pills periostat uk cialis to buy in usa lipothin 200 fenofibrate 134 fasigyn side effects cleocin antibiotic treatment drug orlistat 50mg pills online cialis scam buying ventolin in italy samonas listening therapy headphones phone number to order cialis voydol c ketorolaco tramadol wintomylon vademecum colombia strattera vs adderall in children wo einkaufen online viagra prozac and weight gain side effects aturan pakai viagra viagra online con visa electron xenical in south africa ampicillin for acne treatment where to buy cialis 20mg in uk xanax street prices state by state temovate scalp solution price aggrenox drug classification fertility pills reminyl galantamine india 4 pharmacy levitra cheap ceftin for utis clenbuterol weight loss results pictures diclofenac sodium alcohol cialis in greece where can i get ampicillin quickly flonase nasal spray over the counter buy abortion pill online now order lexapro from india acquistare viagra online over the counter erectile cialis 5 mg mexico buy ampicillin online where to buy accutane online glucotrol side effects glipizide xl buytrental online doxepin side effects medication ventolin expectorant salbutamol for childrenverapamil inderal la 80 order topamax pay pal primox tablets under $100 brafix uk atenolol side effects weight gain cheapest generic viagra uk viagra super active plus canadian cheap soft cialis eprex injection administration procedure levofloxacin and alcohol interaction birth contorl overnight cymbalta withdrawal symptoms side effects cenveo stock quote were to order female cialis strattera side effects children suicide buy prednisone online for dogs ed prescription buy tri cor on line pharmacy purchase hyzaar over the counter roche xenical 120 mg citalopram side effects medication medoflucon 502 paypal domperidone 10mg reviews pharmacy rx one flomaxtra xl uk is 25mg viagra enough cialis canadian pahrmcy side effects of clozapine medication praziquantel wormer for horses pharmacie canadienne cialis baclofen side effects in elderly sildenafil 100mg dosage furolin dosage for infant vistaril 25mg side effects catafast dosage of pepto duvadilan isoxsuprine arthritis pain relief natural remedies weight loss with pcos clonidine side effects in elderly tofranil pm reviews frases de futbol femenino escitalopram 20 mg pill propecia prix lisinopril cost without insurance flomax side effects when quitting westhroid inactive ingredientswintomylon azithromycin 1 gram how long till trileptal bipolar disorder evista for osteoporosis davis drugs stores in canada phentermine side effects hair loss eurax unavailable suhagra 100 directions albenza dosage for tapeworm atenolol 90 pills hiv test otc erection pills esomeprazole magnesium non prescription haldol side effects tardive dyskinesia elocon cream over the counter depo provera for sale online cabergoline and weight loss buy azitromyicin take tadalafil and sildenafil together seroquel and weight gain and metformin renagel medication classification losartan 50 mg tablets side effect eprex liturgia de las horas 2015 budesonide drug cost prevacid 30 mg otc risnia syrup of black letrozole for fertility side effects maxalt side effects dose desogestrel ethinyl estradiol reviews on apidexin zoloft side effects samonas sound therapy program z pack uses atacand medication and grapefruit chlamydia trachomatis symptoms onelinepharmacy netherlands ladies viagra tablets videos de piadas brasileiras propecia 1mg side effects malegra reviews claravis 40 mg coupons abana river pronunciation voltaren online prednisone for dogs with lymphoma viramune copay card nifedipine er 30mg ter zofran side effects pregnancy us pharmacy online tamoxifen citrate for sale vk blue viagra buy zostavax online viagra paypal kegunaan obat grathazon kaplet progesterone pills and pregnancyprogynova cheapest alternative to viagra how to write out trazodone prescription ebay canada for cialis 5 mg price keppra side effects seizure cardinal bank hours acquisto sicuro viagra online how long does valtrex take to work laxifen medicinal chemistry cefadroxil antibiotic dose viagra capsules in india synthroid without prescription canada colchicine treatment for arthritiscombivent erlamycetin tetes mata cendo ketazol tablets for kids cheap accutane cialis without ed metformin dosage for pcos software applications examples buy lasix online canada clopidogrel bisulfate plavix patients buy renagel online dermizol crema de frutadesogen uroxatral generic available proscar medication 5mg online pharmacy bactrim ds ciprodex ear drops dexamethasone side effects cialis wiki medicstar online medicines uk duphaston tablet pilocarpine hcl 5 mg side effects safe website to buy generic viagra 98 celecoxib 200mg prilosec side effects omeprazole 40 mg buy orlistat without prescription viagra en farmacias diclofenac dosage forms lopressor medication duofem online bestellen levaquin side effects treatment minocycline for acne before and after the purple pharmacy web site get cialis pills without prescription antibiotics overnight vagiral ovulos acromona rimipril et kola dianabol side effects on women levlen 28 weight gain detrol la 4mg medication insulin syringes albuterol nebulizer treatment for infants best time to take doxycycline hyclate arcoxia 90mg side effects trimetabol solution set buy medrol colospan 10mg percocet when to take levitra can viagra maintain an erection viagra cialis paiement par paypal rocket power wikirogainrogaine atarax dosage for anxiety starcef 2005 buy prednisolone 5mg tablets buspar reviews weight gain erectile dysfunction pills levitra sample online pharmacy battling anxiety nhs mobic 7.5 mg rheumatoid arthritis aleve vs ibuprofen for headaches plavix coupons drug are branded indian viagra safe diclobru tablets for toddlers ambien cr beprogel scalp acne biaxin clarithromycin mechanism of action us overnight pharmacy donde comprar viagra en londres cialis 5mg paypal warfarin drug interactions nsaids free usa viagra purchase anti anxiety meds for dogs flagyl crema lifta tadalafil cytotec induction process lotrel dosage doselotrisone prednisone 20 mg para que sirve parlodel 2.5mg novartis wo kann ich viagra kaufen diflucan for thrush mouth amerimedrx discount tires levonorgestrel ethinyl estradiol and weight gain microcidal molecules and compounds cyrux misoprostol 200mg progesterone propecia dosage reduction cialis iskustva hydrochlorothiazide thru canada levothroid recall anti anxiety medication online omnicef for utis xerograx capsulas de nopal y prednisone 10 mg pharmacy aciphex 20mg medication price dose of famciclovir for shingles exelon stock price drop geniune accutane blueberry 100 viagra zentel worm medicine side effects vicodin and alcohol mix cialis 20mg kaufen fast prescriptions kegunaan obat ciprofloxacin lamisil shortage cicloferon aciclovir 400 dosis aurochem tadalafil uroxatral 10 mg patients first nosipren prednisone lortab withdrawal symptoms how long imitrex injection side effects buy viagra with bitcoins 27 online pharmacy promethazine codeine free synthroid coupons www where to buy nizoral in canada hatfield pa finastride 5 mg buy serophene and multiple births in houston closest thing to levitra doxycycline hyclate for acne glucotrol buy with out how to use proscar for hair loss canada medicines requiring no rx glipizide 5 mg dose buy dyazide without prescription lincocin antibiotic lincomycin promethazine dm syrup side effects restonite reviews of fifty renagel medication information combivent nebulizer dosecondyline januvia medication for diabetes antabuse side effects with marijuana viagra by check xerograx para que sirve where to buy anafranil capsules accutane 40 mg online yasminelle tabletki 100 mg tadalafil lotrel 10 20 mg bestbuy mexico albenza over the counter viagra para la mujer lamisil side effects rash cipla generic viagra sildenafil inderal side effects dose ranbaxy pharmaceuticals promethazine with codeine for sale cholesterol medications side effects how much is lexapro without insurance us pharmacy lantus solostar in thailand cialis professional vs regular cialis trental 400 para que sirve nootropil 1200mg lidoderm patch uses verses diclofenac epolamine topical patch vermox dosage suspension generic cialis tadalafil best buys order viagra without a prescription fungsi obat grathazon obat minomycin dosage of aspirin metallica through the never review proscar no script best over the counter diet pills atepros medicine cabinet prednisone withdrawal effects united states no prescription pharmacy metoprolol succ er 25mg albenza coupons for target buy viagra in person online cialis in canada milanuncios perros tecker en can i take omnicef for strep throat order levothyroxine 125mcg online zoloft weight gain zoloft withdrawal aciclovir for sale highest rated rx store viagra diovan for sale buy diflucan canada over the counter asthma medication information on lidoderm patch side effects fungsi obat grafazol 500 metronidazole gel pinamox 250mg is how many grams kosovarja horoskopi buy avodart in the uk with paypal cipralex dosage for anxiety order levitra at walmart misoprostol 200mcg for miscarriage generic viagra pharmacy india garlic mashed potatoes recipe buy finasteride without prescription lexapro side effects forum motrin and robitussin interactions buy viagra fast starcef cefixime for gonorrhea benicar efectos secundarios buy viagra in brisbane 58 buy qsymia online diclofenaco vitamina b1 b6 b12 potassium chloride salt substitute levitra price walmart price yasmine bleeth mug shot content definition bible medazole 200mg testosterone strattera side effects in children buy levitra online australia viagra sell in canada www sildenfil avalaible nasik is sertraline time released prescription solutions log in zofran medication for children fertility pills for men arimidex dosages for men ivermectin horse wormer for cats buy benzamycin gel uk happy male viagra cheap digoxin side effects dose metformin and pregnancy success diovan side effects medication colchicine gout prophylaxis viagra e20 buspar side effects with alcohol depakote er dosing prazosin 1mg tablet minocin dosage street value of strattera yasmine bleeth 2015 pictures cabergoline tablets online smoking neurontin overseas drugstore viagra tablet in sri lanka vardenafil normal dosage zofran medication use vigraa online forum doxycycline canada pharmacy white blood cell count prinivil side effects lisinopril mg valium 5mg price pregnant cat pictures on line parmecy canada generic cialis buy haldol elderly dose canada pharmacy online cheap atomoxetine pharmacies anxiety medication list generic who ships frusemide express delivery prometrium suppositories pregnancy success cheap propecia canada prozac for dogs with separation anxiety manufacturer of clozaril and voltaren buy medroxyprogesterone 10mg mens health viagra online sumycin syrup of black metronidazol counter sunrise tadalafil propranolol side effects beta blockers viagra online pharmacy usa prodotto 76 order vbigra by phone laxifen tablets with windows clenbuterol for sale in canada nimesulide tablets alpalide where is alli sold get online levitra prescription zovirax tablets mail order diclofenac sodium buy viagra pills online increasing sperm count and mobility ventolin without rx quinine leg cramps doxycycline hyclate 100 mg slimex capsules philippines valaciclovir online ceftin antibiotic uses for cipro lisinopril 20 mg buy levothyroxine tablets online analgin wikipedia dictionary buy oestrogel online buy amoxicillin online metformin hydrochloride lipitor price insurance quotes online car desogen and acne clenbuterol weight loss athletes sotalex medication identification echeck online store cialis shipped from usa low cost no prescription flomax hyzaar blood pressure hydrochlorothiazide medicine amitriptyline for pain zoloft 50mg side effects cvs viagra price buy xenical spain buy post cycle therapy online levamisole cocaine pictures deltacortril ent 5mg price of crestor at costco 141 podofilox 0.5 topical treatment sildenafil kaufen deutschland lidoderm pain patches side effects viagra ohne rezept ganstig where can i buy viagra 100gm generic finasteride health shop prednisone for dogs dosage chart arthrotec ec 75 side effects pulmicort flexhaler dosage side effects of fertomid clomid lortab hydrocodone dosage progynova 2mg after embryo transfer flovent hfa 110 mcg generic aciphex generic names donde puedo conseguir cytotec en panama suprax 200 mg for dogs generic accutane cost without insurance finasteride 1mg best price obat metronidazole lamotrigine lamictal side effects rash images primox tablets sale benemid medications climaval 2mg ohne rezept vitamix 7500 release date viagra apotheke deutschland pravastatin sodium side effects meds without prescription where can i buy metformin voltaren oyunu revatio order where to find zenerx in stores where to buy amitriptyline in uk ali weight loss tablets abilify weight gain side effects viramune 200mg caffeine can cialis make you bigger does cialis work for women rx mex pharmacy singulair coupons prescription viagra international shipping buy viagra through paypal isoptin medication disulfiram no prescription what is etodolac 400 mg dose orlistat tablets uk ordering paxil without prescription topamax medication information glucophage dosage form buspirone hcl 15 mg tablet milf stories viagra uk online buying cialis cheap allopurinol long term side effects tadalafil tablets 5mg canada clindamicina ketoconazol cremaclindamycin soft tabs vs hard tabs antabuse drug interaction buy stillnot on line antibiotics usa without prescription apcalis complaints definition carprofen for dogs rimadyl overdose combivent respimat coupon stanozolol for dogs side effects vantin antibiotics levitra generika deutschland sotalex medicine cabinet can men take metronidazole raloxifene or tamoxifen for invasive breast cancer flovent side effects hoarseness doxazosin mesylate 4mg tablet domperidone maleate side effects tadalafil uk lasix shop inhaler no prescription doctor online pharmacy thyroid pilexil shampoo mexico liquidex bodybuilding forums glipizide medication for diabetes aleve coupons printable 2013alfuzosin adipex diet pills without a script tetracycline generics from canada 552 free albuterol inhaler samples fentanyl patch side effects for cats disgrasil orlistat precious movie generic levitra professional 40 topiramate 25mg for pain sotalol medication side effects mobicool mini fridge f15 femara drug cialis ireland xenical 600 mg aspirin dosage for heart propecia 1 or 5 mg erexin v vigra on line review avalide side effects irbesartan hctz aviane birth control pill side effects soft viagra for sale in canada zopiclone tablets 7.5 mg phenergan overnight generic viagra shipping from canada torsemide 20 mg diuretic definition amoxicillin dosage cialis 5 mg online pharmacy medsonline de synulox usa albenza coupons for bed lidocaine ointment usp 5 what is it used for discount genuine viagara coversyl side effects in men rxrelief card reviews rythmol sr levamisole side effects in horses alphagan eye drops coupon temovate scalp application letter one half viagra and 20 units trimix bisoprolol fumarate 5 mg tab side effects arimidex side effects hair loss cyclivex 400mg side effects kosovarja magazine peja euroclinix uk garlic shrimp recipe bobby flay adderall weight loss drug mavidol tr* ketorolaco tramadol 10 mg 25 mgoblog olanzapine dosage 2.5 mg furolin tablets sale cialis in the philippines diprosone 0.05 furolin medication interaction benadryl for infants side effects folcres precious lord zyban wellbutrin diltiazem cd 180 mg buy prozac no prescription aus mincorp plcm provera side effects synthroid no script zocor information picareta em ingles grocery phexin dropship paxil paroxetine withdrawal symptoms zenerx at walmart claravis side effects treatment levaquin side effects lawsuit seroflo diskushernija elifemeds reviews on garcinia harga true face combivent without prescripton ph pharmacy online dalacin antibiotic pfizer patient assistance programs medications ventolin hfa coupon 2013 ranitidine 300 mg information retirides otcas buying calis use paypal buy tinidazole in singapore buy terbinafine pills online source of canadian viagra wholesale viagra 100mg buy tinidazole sinequanone 2015 toyota cialis to buy mail order prometrium suppositories picturepropanololpropranolol prazosin hcl medication ciales pr weather cialis 5mg best price canada amikacin drug medication side effects non generic adipex carafate side effects symptoms low testosterone androgel reviews decadron shot while pregnant letrozole infertility multiple births rimadyl 100mg chewable 60ct sunsuria bukit jelutong sime ordonnance viagra cipralex e pantoprazolo trazodone sleeping pill finasteride 5mg side effects for women doxycycline gel over the counter lasix no prescription levitra overnight us viagra rezeptfrei auf rechnung glimepride without prescription oral jelly hydroxyzine hcl 10mg side effects micardis plus side effects mail order clarithromycin 500 mg apparition de viagra claravis treatment time exelon corporation trusted viagra websites carbimazole side effects in cats pulmicort inhaler medication dose pinamox 250mg azithromycin where to buy alli diet pill need viagra pills generic pills for exenical buy augmentin without a script haldol for nausea adipex 37.5 mg generic disgrasil capsulas de moringa kegunaan obat meloxicam 15 mg caffeine and breastfeeding babies terramycin antibiotic ophthalmic ointment with polymyxin b sulfate .13 oz lavetra generic by kamagra oral jelly in mumbai india medicinenet boils pictures slide show chineese herbal shops bucharest online pharmacy europ no prescription content definition androgel reviews by customers ivermectin side effects where to buy lipothin with raspberry ketone cheap 5 mg cialis from canada extenze side effects enhance manhood instantly synthroid side effects synthroid and weight loss how much does viagra cost clozapine dosage forms terbutaline preterm labor dosage oratane online malaysia free proventil inhaler coupons rxshop products cialis buy femara no prescription cod price of flovent inhaler prices for donepezil medication zyvoxid prospectors everyone graduates center para que sirve amantadina clorfenamina paracetamol cleocin t pledgets reglan dosage for infants zanaflex side effects dreams pharmaceuticals viagra flagyl dosage for bacterial vaginosis buy clomid express shipping free propecia sample mailorder viagra ausralia revia medication. for cutting provigil medication side effects order periactin without prescription efecto del cialis en la mujer nosipren lowest price kamagra online co uk buying gabapentin overnight delivery amsa fast orlistat diet pills deltacortril ent supreme suppliers canada cialis leadmedic canadian pharmacy abilify from mexico venlafaxine side effects weight gain over counter viagra alternative gnc tryptizol 25mg sertraline cyclo progynova and pregnancy zyvox package insert no prescription pharmacies for viagra antibiotics for bronchitis and sinusitis adipex side effects adipex p anxiety disorder symptoms test flonase nasal spray price amoxicillin for sinus infection dosage canadian pharmacuticals generic viagra generic viagra who takes mastercard ranitidine side effects for babies cialis online pharmacy reviews cefabiot para que es este medicamento glucophage xr 500 side effects withdrawal symptoms of prilosec strattera medication and weight lossstromectalstromectol minocycline hcl 100mg cap side effects flonase nasal spray viagra low price baytril antibiotic for cats cefalexina dosis perros how much is valtrex without insurance diamox side effects acetazolamide mechanism zineryt cenacle 265 painkillers without a prescription allegra d side effects allegra d cialis versand aus deutschland eutirox 75 levothyroxine sodium sildenafil citrate powder suppliers topiramate 25mg weight loss berifen medicinal mushrooms viagra brand name doxycap capsule size paracetamol mechanism of action antipyretic betnesol drops norstan communications ohio lergigan 25mg fentanyl provigil 200 mg buy online amphetamine salt combo no rx required leponex tableta dejstvo marihuane zocor warnings aleve side effects naprosyn ovral generic aviane birth control and weight gain order volteran without a prescription norvasc side effects amlodipine besylate estrofem 2mg for men starcef 100mg nicotine ciplafield eas req status asthmaticus reamwhere can i buy fucidin cream kamagranow voucher buying viagra in canada reviews bevispas 135mg solodyn viagra tablet sale online viagra surrey precose dosage for benadryl avana cypress estates samonas sound therapy headphones vermox side effects doctor order metformin 500 mg online canada pharmacy online levoxyl medication recall goodrx apps eldepryl manufacturer definition fempro tablets with keyboards preisvergleich viagra generika flurazepam hcl prinivil generic how much does cialis cost penis on viagra where can i get viagra fast clopidogrel bisulfate 75mg tab maxalt migraine dose buy tadacip 20 mg cialis uputstvo zantac vs prilosec for infants viagra in bangalore mail kumaden co jp ivermectin side effects for dogs lidocaine patch 5 price fentanyl patch dosages arimidex bodybuilding aromatase inhibitor puppies for adoption in pa vitamin b12 injections lopressor medications toradol injection medication ketorolac tromethamine 10mg tab macrobid side effects during pregnancy subutex 54 411 image www cheap erectlie im mexico tadacip cipla india us online pharmacy overnight delivery sotalol and sotalol af ranbaxy stock quote mirtazapine for sleep comprare viagra in contrassegno atacand side effects medications mail order brand name viagra generika franchise cost arthrotec medication coupon phexin bd tablets how much is viagra in canada long term side effects trazodone stendra cost per pill lo ovral generic birth control metoprolol tartrate 25mg tab side effects misoprostol induction of labour remeron side effects mirtazapine inhouse pharmacy uk adderall side effects in adults sweating ciales puerto rico pueblo toro negro pravachol medication cholesterol bystolic nebivolol vilches ateneo c20 cialis fluoxetine hcl 10mg side effects viagra tablets translations in urdu american express canada genericos viagra india alli shopping liposafe testimonials for friends laxifen tabletas en what pills are good to get high off of pfizer chewable viagra arthritis symptoms atacand medication generic online pharmacy no pres needed coumadin side effects medication haloperidol medication used for tadacip cipla cardura generic name buying truth drugs glucovance 5 500 espanol imovane 7 5mg information now orlistat froom china lisinopril dosage paxil side effects catafast 50 mg healthy men rx canada pharmacy 365 uk azithromycin no script cozaar generic brand risnia medicine cabinet buy synthroid india tegretol 200mg coupons online pharmacy no dr prescriptions oral metronidazole online plavix patent levitra professional cheapest lynoral ingredients in splenda mexitil dosage calculator clopidogrel bisulfate 75mg cost donepezil aricept cialis online prescription online uk amoxicillin chloroquine phosphate uses benoquin 20 free shipping dilantin pain killers thyroxine side effects treatment itch amoxil dosage chart microcidal 500 nimesulide tablets ingredients oxybutynin side effects rash prilosec otc ship to canada generic viagra 25mg free shipping side effects vidalista 20 mg cheap viagra professional online sildenafil citrate generic viagra elocon cream 0.1 uses vicodin withdrawal symptoms how long does it last duphalac lactulose solution laxative priceduroval caffeine anhydrous 1 3 7 trimethylxanthine aleve d sinus and cold directions ventolin side effects children pletal medication taking nolvadex austlalie plavix patient assistance phone number rogaine for men hair regrowth treatment buy cialis online mastercard moduretic drug abuse viagra ohne rezept per nachnahme drugs comparable to abilify venlafaxine hcl er 37.5mg for anxiety free trial lantus insulin coupons vendita cialis originale on line dianabol for sale cheap order cialis online cod sureway construction edmonton alberta azithromycin canada dostinex 0.5mg tablet rogaine for women side effectswebmd zithromax cvs over the counter doxycycline no prescription needed rx pharmacy italain amsafast orlistat coupon code for cialis eldepryl dosage of tylenol avapro maximum dosage levitra 20mg best price trustedtablets comprar xenical spain cheap single viagra pills ciplox tz robaxin for dogs tinidazole 500mg for bacterial vaginosis quiero comprar accutane como tomar cytotec para abortar buy birthcontroll on line flomax side effects low blood pressure generika doktor apotheke cialis comprare primox muscle men chest best online pharmacy yasminelle tablets on sale where can you buy generic viagra cabgolin medicine dictionary mirtazapine 30 mg tablet side effects cheap celebrex no perscription iv drugs without prescription post cycle therapy nolvadex metrogel coupon galderma pomada terramicina para los ojos duroval a rhinocort aqua nasal spray 32mcg grifulvin v 500mg information system what is betagesic tabletsbetaprofen cialis daily vs 36 hour tetracycline sale rxmeds hub north american pharmacy canada viagra liquidex rui products liquid kemadrin discontinued clinique canadian mail order pharmacy acheter logirene retention deau inderalici 40 progesterone only birth control effectiveness order periactin pills samonas therapeutic listening therapy buy celexa online side effects of carbimazole tablets lamisil 250 mg online how long do you take prometrium during pregnancy sotalex medication information mesalamine side effects cafergot medications temovate scalp application for employment cytoxan chemotherapy treatment for dogs substitute for viagra walgreens restasis valium side effects in elderly requip restless leg syndrome pregnancy fentanyl transdermal patch application order cialis online usa online viagra review meclizine 12.5 mg side effects levitra contra reembolso super cialis abilify maintena patient assistance program pure hoodia gordonii side effects flagyl pills ou acheter meprobamate buy robaxin without prescription what is betafusin creambetagesic teva alendronate sodium side effects side effect dosage of flagy syrup cialis best supply for uk buy estradiol prozac and alcohol use norvasc 10mg amlodipine sureway transportation load board ginnette 85 online pfizer stock prices kamatra sumatra indonesia renova online no prescription proventil without prescription quick shipping tadalafil online cordarone drug action glyprin aspirin overdose toradol ordering phentermine side effects long term over the counter deltasone medication diabecon ingredients in marshmallows 5 day prednisone pack olanzapine medication blue pill doxycycline hyclate uses for cialis paypal payment suhagra 100 side effectssuhagrat pulmicort flexhaler 180 mcg cost flurazepam 15mg capsules accutane cost sinoemet for sale canada approved european online pharmacy trimox 500mg drug map of abana river cefadroxil and drinking alcohol kamagrafast uk map no hassel meds on line buy generic sildenafil australia permethrin cream for scabies over the counter samonas therapeutic listening research canadian prednisone 10mg without script cytotec induction stories doxycycline hyclate uses doxycycline hyclate 100mg doxycap 100 mg trazodone disgrasil orlistat precio del erythromycin india restonite 10 mg buy cialis online south africa 316 primatene mist buying generic drugs with out prescription hk viagra amazon levitra walmart chlamydia meds online us avodart side effects dutasteride for hair canada drugs without a prescription bayer brand name levitra albendazole uk flonase vs nasonex effectiveness kamagrafast brighton ford uricon with out precritpion for dogs viagra wikipedia ajax cialis online amantadine poisoning house farmaceutica viagra doping female tramadol 50 mg side effects for dogs erection company arlington wa temovate cream generic cymbalta and neurontin and weight gain online erection pills kamagra oral jelly cheap terramicina oxitetraciclina 500 mg where to buy arimidex aldactone side effects tamoxifen citrate research chemical exelon stock dividend levothroid ingredients buy non prescription doxycycline buy accutane australia viagra prices walmart combivent online no prescription ativan withdrawal how long does it last betneval creme serp 5151 1esetprotoscanctx ca31208 nosipren 5mg cialis for sale usa eliza orlistat best place to buy levitra online gupisone prednisolone 20mg side lynoral tablets for toddlersmacifortmacrobid keflex 500 mg doses clonidine hcl 0.1mg for night sweats in women tomar cytotec sin estar embarazada cabaser cabergoline bodybuilding robaxin 500mg anxiety attacks while driving casodex prostate cancer side effects mestinon timespan 180 carbimazole side effects treatment prednisone with no rx spiriva inhaler discount coupons aprovel irbesartan side effects mirtazapine side effects in cats trimetabol usopen offshore pharmacy mebendazole 100 mg rite aid asthma snafi tadalafil reasons for using viagra diovan hct medstore pills online pharmacy cipro antibiotic for sale levitra visa euro deltasone 20mg oxycodone apetamin p cyproheptadine venta de viagra places that sell lotrel sildenafil 100mg side effects epogen administration protocol coumadin blood thinner testing machine no prescription seroquel where can i buy levothyroxine sodium advair generic release date flomax for women with urinary retention tonsils and betamox uroxatral 10 mg patients hospital pasadena mincorp plcb buy xalatan latanoprost ophthalmic solution cholesterol lowering diet plan mayo clinic cheap antibiotics online overnight amerimedrx discount buy proplanalol online uk ephedraxin ingredients in beer www phamacy rx viagra benazepril hctz 20 12.5 phentermine adipex buy online reviews for generic levitra online augmentin side effects in babies injectable ivermectin for horses atrovent inhaler generic advair diskus 100 dollars 51 cent phentermine 37.5 mg naproxen 500 mg tablet donepezil side effects review lopressor generic side effects clomid reviews 2012 the erection company arlington esquina del lechon miami provera side effects during pregnancy 2053 med direct diamox altitude sickness side effects insurance institute for highway safety car seat ratings buy lasix online europe exelon patch for dementia keppra 500mg levetiracetam side effects flovent hfa 220 mcg coupons viagra mexico clavupen 100mg viagra hoodia gordonii plus kalahari desert clindamycin phosphate gel usp 1 side effects topamax dosage domperidone tablets vomistop aprovel 150 mg tablets aciphex online without prescription viagra from canida safe website to buy cialis buy prednisone for dogs acticin to buy online
Joomla extensions by Siteground Hosting