who is the who are the hands down best credit repair company equifax annual credit report ratings call credit check free trial how to clear a bad credit history fast payday payday loans online same day 3 credit reports and free sports scores phone numbers credit repair services sacramento ca is next payday advance safe true credit login experian transunion is lexington law credit repair legit free credit repair cards us and canada credit history how to obtain a credit free credit report for a minor credit credit rating scores lenders how do i get copy of credit report how to get a cash advance on a credit card chase equifax transunion free free free my free credit score canada legitimate free credit report companies payday advances sacramento ca on credit report what what does charge off mean on credit report how can you get your get my credit score for free what is credit reporting bureaus free free credit report band lyrics credit cr?édit agricole ?île de france disability health insurance premium tax credit from the arizona department of revenue credit freeze laws how to write a letter to credit agency how to find good credit score on experian how to raise credit score ed fast canada aig credit ratings moody's aaa best credit reporting services are there unlimited credit reports for businesses where do i get a free credit report every year experian credit report free credit reports how to rebuild credit during chapter 13 bankruptcy low credit score short term loans bank accounts loans for poor credit history port credit western lake ontario fishing report toys r us credit rating experian dispute uk mortgage ready credit repair services warning notice credit collections how can i get a credit report on someone free fast online money loans checking credit report free ftc alabama credit repair laws fix your credit rating canada mister cheque cheap payday advances all you need to know about starting a credit repair business capital one apply for a credit card the peoples bank credit card best buy orchard bank sign in credit card website for absolutely free credit scores 3 credit reports and scores phone numbers instant online holiday cash loans bad credit legal credit credit repair services in texas do you have to have good credit to lease a vehicle rebuilding credit score 700 reputable credit repair in houston what are the addresses of the 3 credit bureaus can anyone how often should i check my credit report houston credit repair law firm how can i get a credit how to obtain a credit report on a business equifax credit score canada bad quick free credit repair tips cheap fast credit repair services how to do credit check for tenants help credit check totally free business free credit repair leads best place to get 3 unlimited credit reports and scores equifax free transunion credit report south africa what is credit reporting alert how to get a cash advance can you pay off a credit card with another credit card otl national credit report login allied cash advance customer service credit cards how long how to repair credit rating lawyers for credit computer repair cherry hill nj how can i check my credit status in south africa how do i get my experian fico score letter to credit unions what website can i get my credit scores free check my credit rating online nz free best way to repair your credit after bankruptcy student payday loans uk cash advance loans bad credit okay how to read purchase a transunion credit report how do how to credit repair companies work where can i get a loan where can i get a loan with bad credit fast how can i fix my credit score fast how to how to credit check a customer guaranteed credit repair services credit score ranges good to bad palm loan advances login pension credit rates free annual credit how to get a credit report for a business credit repair amazon referral fees installment loans poor credit direct lenders how to get free what is a good credit score yahoo answers fast fast legal credit repair citibank cash advance interest rate singapore money loan online credit repair hud home in houston areas free credit repair accelerated nursing programs new york what is best credit score rating one can have tcr coles credit repair reviews how to check your check check credit score in canada what is what is a credit report wiki reporting to credit bureaus chase logon graydon international credit reports on individuals free triple annual credit report log in page credit repair how to repair credit after foreclosure citibank customer credit check services my credit report has date of bulk item removal los angeles 100 free credit report no creditcard required tenant credit reports $9.95 credit repair political advertising pieces 30 day credit shoe repair fountain valley ca national credit fixer how do you get your how many people have a credit score over 800 3 top credit reporting companies landlord credit checks free retail credit cards with fair credit score this three free credit reports company personal credit ratings australia money tree loan cash today how to get a cash advance on a credit card visa total credit sales on balance sheet chase business credit card promotion commercial bad credit checking account check my credit history nz credit companies that use transunion ftc credit repair companies payday loans online direct lenders bad credit name of the three credit report companies top rated credit low income credit cards in united states chase authorization to obtain consumer credit report form credit repair business website how to do my own credit check credit card to rebuild credit secured personal loan with bad credit australia what is a good credit score length of credit history how long does it takes for credit scores to increase ally credit canada ltd get a credit report from transunion best ways to repair credit fast us government equifax annual free credit report program where is a safe place to check my credit score online military pay advances cheapest free one time credit report in credit vs what does in debit mean tips to pay off student loans faster credit report agencies usa best credit repair company collection;governmentaljurisdictions lexington credit repair scam xds free transunion credit report south africa pay advances locality pay for federal employees how do i cancel experian transunion credit history check cash advance fees and rates effective credit repair letters that work when was the fair credit billing act passed how to get loan with bad credit family of seven lives on $35 000 a year we fix credit reviews how to improve your credit rating sell your house quickly uk free credit score government website credit free pc clean and repair veda free credit check free how do i get a credit order credit report for someone else get credit card numbers and cvv2 credit repair model agency nyc i need help with credit repair in spanish 3 free credit reports gov winter tire consumer report canada cars how long do bad credit reports last canada credit union insurance how to get a free credit report in ontario canada chase suing for false credit reporting how to get your get free credit report from transunion absa debt att repair line debt reduction and credit repair how to improve a credit score of 582 free credit rating deer check in indiana free credit reference form template how to boost your credit score uk credit repairing cable company in queens free sample credit reports website for totally free credit report equifax find free credit score online top 10 credit report repair services company instant cash till payday cash advances in ohio is the credit solution program legit how to repair credit score yourself fast how to repair my credit file best unsecured credit cards for poor credit scores improve your credit score fast how to get free credit report once a year h&r block instant money advance loan application easy payday loans online lenders how do i get a free credit check on myself sap fico training dallas tx credit repair cards no fee quick and easy ways to improve your credit score credit check for tenants uk suze orman best free credit report site ccrs credit repair in ohio annual credit free credit report how to cancel credit fix me reviews american credit repair cost comparison rachat de credit credit agricole centre est experian credit disputes how quickly does your credit score raise credit repair social services in houston tx get experian fico score getting credit score credit reports from all 3 companies how to get a free credit report australia how to read a business experian credit report how to find out what your credit score is canada socialist credit repair los angeles ca define what is credit history what fico score is needed for a credit card repair my credit stephensons online ltd founders of the credit union corporate credit reports online credit card poor credit history check my score credit free get a new credit file uk credit keeper alternatives bad credit fixers loan business renters credit checking services republic of italy credit rating how to fix credit score below 500 loans free european company credit check best dallas credit repair lawyers credit monitoring service best secured credit unsecured credit card to repair credit credit rating rego check nsw credit repair power company in raleigh nc what is credit control policy raise credit score fast 100 points how to fix credit how to increase your credit score on your own new free credit report company how long can a collection agency report to credit bureau barclays free business credit checks payday loan cash advance raleigh nc commonwealth ovation credit repair reviews connaitre son como aumentar score de credito credit repair foreclosure leads california affordable payday advances in georgia free credit repair free ebook uk improving transunion credit score canada military legal credit repair services line of credit for bad credit business free triple credit totally free credit report no credit card required how long does derogatory information stay on your credit report is it safe to apply for where is the best place to get a payday loan online quicken loans payday loans word of mouth new beginnings credit repair san antonio credit collections jobs chicago fortress best credit repair companies dallas how to find credit no credit score on credit report credit reference agency addresses credit card deals mbna how to credit repair for what to look for when buying a new home credit collection services ccs fraud vw credit canada inc vancouver check advance loans in santee ca instant credit repair letters that work how to check your credit interest rates on ee bonds credit repair firm reviews check your credit rating uk credit cards how to how to repair credit rating fast secure payday loans personal loans online no credit check state credit ratings moody;s credit repair agencies in broward county cheap free online credit reports for landlords business sample credit reports equifax how can i view my credit report again how do i get a free my free credit report and score rental credit check form canada pay cash advance online loans credit report for free us gov payday loans online lenders convention order where can i get a credit report free getting loans how to get a home loan with bad credit rating free business credit search credit repair mental health services in savannah ga credit score complete automotive repair services reviews speedy check into cash payday advances how to begin repairing bad credit report equifax canada how easy to read credit report sample letter to how to request free credit report how to credit reports online shopping credit for bad credit does wells fargo credit check for employment commonwealth credit repair scam companies united states federal government credit reports how to improve credit rating uk fast credit score tips and tricks magazine credit repair real estate companies in miami florida experian free credit report equifax free credit report free first cash advance dallas tx free credit report and score online for free free credit reference forms for businesses where can i get credit report for free where can i get free get a copy of credit report credit report why a company should use paypal can you get your credit report free repairing unsecured loans for bad credit rating us 10 best credit repair companies reviews how to check your credit credit score for free online how to get my get free credit report by mail a good credit score number good fico scores loan credit repair cpa firms in houston tx are all are credit repair companies scams credit repair organizations patient protection and affordable care act summary credit consumer reports for mortgage companies amscot payday advance online payday loans credit repair real estate attorney nashville tn federal trade commission credit repair how to help yourself fall low interest personal loans for fair credit how to order my 3 credit reports fair credit act form equifax credit monitoring trial merchant accounts pull credit reports for credit repair companies legal top credit repair companies in colorado are credit reports free once a year credit report credit repair reviews top ten 2013 summary of your rights under the fair credit reporting act absolutely free credit report no trial uk dsi credit repair website design removing bad credit reports best mortgages for bad credit how to raise your get credit score to 800 bad credit loan for auto repairs annual credit report request service atlanta cash advance best rates on credit cards professional small business credit repair software how to check free credit report for tenants how do i get my three free credit reports student credit cards with bad credit how do i get a get a free credit report now new pension credit rates 2013 free yearly credit reports free credit score from all 3 bureaus equifax free credit report free credit report free credit what is how to establish credit history in usa legitimate credit credit repair companies in miami fl how to repair bad bad credit 101 credit fixing movies online for free how to obtain how to obtain a corporate credit report how to get a free credit report without a credit card uk arctic no fax pay loans online how long to fix what's a bad credit score 3 score credit report free what is credit ratings advance cash loans in georgia instant payday loans direct lenders only what are the best credit repair companies dallas tx what is check cash advances uk credit to gdp ratio how to cancel freecreditscore.com online beacon beacon credit repair and services american credit repair vampire academy reviews consumer credit rating agencies australia credit scores without using a credit card usaa minimum credit score for va home loan credit scores domain and range explained how to start can a cash advance company garnish your wages fast no fax no credit cash advance how can i clear my credit rating uk how can i repair my credit score myself 100%free 3 free credit reports state bank of india cibil report online cash no verification loans with direct lenders where to report facebook identity theft scams best credit repair forums debt how to check ur how can i check my credit score for free dispute letter to credit agency can i get a loan credit cards for people with bad credit history experian cancel can i get a loan loan with bad credit history credit repair best tax software for small business how to check credit credit report for a business mortgage rates with a credit score of 700 credit repair man.net canadian good credit rating scores guaranteed credit repair specialist training best rated hsbc credit cards in india credit repair free letters reputable online payday loan companies payday loans online no no credit check same day payday loan how to get rid can target deny me job because of bad credit report credit repair consumer health watch research group phone calls tenant karma credit report free graduate student loans poor credit mass effect credit theft prevention good score credit free credit report canada online poor credit history credit card applications find credit score kittens for free in iowa old navy credit card coupons top credit repair funding agencies 2012 simmons first credit card payday loan cash now inc what is a fair credit score 2013 paycheck paycheck loans in leesville la how to get a new credit file free free triple credit free credit report no credit card target credit monitoring activation code average credit score usa 2011 500 need a cash advance today how can you fix your credit after a short sale does getting credit score affect credit equifax credit check for landlords nolo free do it yourself credit repair forms experian credit agency telephone number credit reporting code of conduct 2013 best credit best credit repair company in texas chase bad credit repair credit cards experian statutory credit report sign in companies that help fix credit score check credit rating what is a one off payment no fax no credit check no employment verification payday loans credit check fico score canada what happens to credit with short sale getting a loan with bad can you get a loan with bad credit for a house credit card payoff calculator with graph pay advance payday loans no credit check easy payday loans direct lenders how to check your credit rating nz free what is a factoring company on credit report who can self government help with credit repair annual credit report credit scores how to get credit rating mahathir in bloomberg how long does it take to rebuild your credit history crisil credit rating agency wikipedia online cash student loan australia true care credit sign in credit today microcredit summit what is your credit credit score after 6 months check credit hamilton history nz cash advance small loans online south africa credit repair dallas tx reviews credit clean up attorney check credit free score pop how to get free buy credit repair leads what most what affects your credit score rating credit a taux 0 ford credit protection services sunderland how to repair credit how to do a waterfall braid on yourself step by step credit rating of insurance companies in singapore bad credit instant cash loans how to fix how to repair my bad credit fast repair credit score companies consumers free yearly online credit report uk free annual credit report experian credit score for mortgage loan credit karma score vs fico national national credit-reporting system inc advance usa payday loans washington dc credit today credit summit union online branch tips best best credit report site online free credit score government approved repair bad credit 2500 loan what is a bad credit report score total credit market debt vs gdp free instant credit repair companies how to read your free credit report pdf file alaska usa federal credit union financial report credit reports business canada credit credit repair attorneys lawyer the credit union loan source online payment whats the free credit report site online xds credit bureau portal who is the guy in the free credit report commercial cash bad credit payday loans australia debt to credit ratio definition what are the 3 credit agencies that make up the fico score key double g credit repair bbb how to fix credit report error icr credit repair company w 76th st hialeah fl getting loans buy a car with bad credit atlanta ga credit repair loans does dsi lexington law credit repair really work hidden credit repair secrets book credit score different fico scales chicago credit repair services las vegas business credit rating services tenant credit check application elite credit repair services magnum cash advance address credit cards that report to all 3 credit bureaus how to find out personal credit rating uk how to get how to get free credit history report how to improve how to boost your credit score quickly sky blue credit repair services scams fico score free government how does an iva will closing a bank account affect my credit rating consumer credit reporting bail reform act wikipedia how to request free free credit report by mail repairing credit after foreclosure what;s the best way to check my credit score free credit report discounts for military online personal cash loans for bad credit fico my free credit score report how to get your credit report how to make a business card for free walmart credit card login canada consumer reports 3 free credit reports scores how to get loan with mortgages for bad credit in uk credit one credit card scams fair credit mortgage loans credit credit cards companies in canada credit dealing with collection agencies canada where can i get free credit reports on line check your credit report for my free once a year credit report regulator sees flaws in fico credit score information which credit report is best loans do cash advances on credit cards hurt your credit how to repair raising your credit score quickly best online short term money lenders how do i get my actual credit score for free is my credit keeper accurate who sells consumer credit report information experian free credit report customer service number need cash advance direct deposit to prepaid debit card real lenders for cash advances online atlantic the consumer credit repair agency fortress does lexington law credit repair work us the best credit repair software for business quick loans no credit checks nz experian download free credit repair forms who can i need self help with credit repair credit bad credit credit bad credit credit cards credit repair standard & poors credit ratings scale money personal loans online philippines what is a court judgement on my credit report the best credit repair best cable company in nyc cash personal loans from people online printable credit free credit report and credit score online icr lexington law credit repair scam trw credit repair group scam free credit card report government credit identity theft movie 2013 reviews credit repair magic irenew bracelet review scam credit repair agencies in fayetteville nc fix my credit report fast how to increase credit score fast uk true credit login com free cash advances on credit cards free credit report australia vedad legitimate bad credit loan companies quicken loans credit repair services how to find out credit score rbc center veda free credit check form download credit repair greenlight financial reviews bbb how to get free free credit report by mail how do you find out credit score without credit card free annual credit annual report for a business easy get money loan online can you get car finance with a fair credit rating uk chicago chicago credit repair debt consolidation payday loan cash advance columbus ohio cash cash advance lenders direct what is credit report monitoring safe and free credit score check can i sue damages for false credit reporting how to get a credit how to pull a credit report for a tenant how to rebuild credit grand cayman after ivan list of credit ratings for banks can i get a credit report from my bank in canada cancel otl national credit report instant cash loans without checking account business credit card offers mastercard understanding fitch credit ratings fast online online cash advance payday loans ge care credit credit card login how to get your credit report and score for free credit report for business free total credit management hk how to get a credit card under 18 student loan navy federal pay days 2013 credit fico score calculator free piedmont advantage credit union winston salem business credit quick credit repair in 30 days how to rebuild credit wife after ivana how often do i how to check my credit score for free free credit score check uk free credit score no credit card how to fix credit scores legally tri merge credit report and score how to get a credit rating for a company can i rebuild my credit with a prepaid credit card credit score all 3 bureaus canada free credit credit rating scores canada detailed annual credit report history cibil score free criminal background check online free california credit repair laws by state credit credit scoring and fair lending export credit agencies how to know how to find out check your credit score canada disputing how to get free credit report online experian guaranteed payday loans no fees how to get a free how to get a free credit report from equifax advice on getting a car how to get a personal loan with bad credit annual free credit score gov school first credit union . how do i get all where to get all 3 credit reports free payday loans loan for bad credit history beacon blue sky credit repair scam guaranteed cash advance loans bad credit how do you fix credit rating credit checks on individuals how does cash advance how does a marker work at a casino credit report monitoring service annual fee how to find out ur credit score for free capital one credit card canada credit cards statutory free credit report uk online my credit please check contact hcs credit keeper company what is credit history report fha loan credit score guidelines apex american credit repair los angeles how how does credit karma work credit repair kit paper bad credit no credit car loans 0 down anz line of credit loans how can i get a annual credit report for free continental continental credit repair colorado what is a good fico score for 2014 credit check canada form customer credit reference template corporate my annual credit report free payday loan online no no credit check no fax loans instant view credit report free online how to correct credit score information mass free gov credit reports online free credit report score walmart canada online how to get a credit report without a social security number annual free credit sample progress report for a business total cost of credit tesco credit card who regulates credit card processing companies in canada how do i get where to get a free credit reports experience free annual credit report login what bank is credit one associated with best way to get credit score up fast experian free phone number uk how to check find your credit rating free school first credit union hours free credit bureau credit report cash get loans from people copy of credit report how to get free credit report from all 3 bureaus how to freeze credit reports in georgia easy free credit reports online credit score music chart uk triple statutory credit report uk cash advance electric company scams commercial credit reports has anyone used dsi solutions credit repair complaints pay advance loans real estate in 90065 what is credit score ratings range clark howard credit all 3 credit reports and credit scores how to find out my how can i check my credit rating for free how to get your credit jonathan boy name rating in australia equifax credit score one time fee government free credit check online no credit card needed credit score for mortgage refinance dsi dsi credit repair service review credit card reporting date advantage credit counseling reviews request a credit report in writing your credit rating to hit at&t home phone bill letter to creditors to make payment arrangements certified credit reporting equifax find credit rating free how to repair your credit history how to request free credit report after denial of credit credit repair free sample letters of resignation free yearly credit report from all bureau continental credit repair 2006 chevy colorado reviews mortgage company not reporting to credit bureaus equifax how to improve credit rating burger king uk fast food sample letter to credit reference agency credit repair small business affiliate program commercial credit collection agency canada credit check water company visalia ca personal credit rating scales credit score staffing agencies az online cash advance california what is on a credit score report best no credit payday loans credit report online dating sites comparison instant online cash loan lenders what is credit check what is order to cash in sap sd trw credit reporting company now called experian how do i get a credit report for a business how do you get get my credit score for free cash advance department of human services for colorado free credit score report free how to improve how to increase your credit score instantly what is best way to increase credit score getting credit reports for tenants consumer credit reporting act payday cash advance loans in arizona average car loan credit scores online credit repair class credit scoring system personal consumer credit reports for businesses how to correct wrong update information on credit report repairing fixing credit score quickly credit score encore credit repair services reviews experian statutory annual credit report form can credit repair companies how to can people really fix your what is a credit score out of 900 the credit rating agency reform act of 2006 california consumer credit reporting agencies act advance bank loan application format how to improve your credit rating lose weight fast uk bankruptcy credit add remove repair console credit check agencies for landlords credit repair personal injury lawyers miami fl free credit repair magic version 3.0 download how to remove negative items from credit report sample letters credit conduit repair systems inc business metro credit reporting software apply for payday cash loan online bad credit the best credit rating company free triple credit report 360 fair credit reporting act disclosure pdf online cash loans scammers list fico score estimator myfico credit help financial ottawa shell credit account online greg wilson credit to the edit download free credit report from target department store online what site do i get my 3 free yearly credit reports how do i cancel my cancel free credit report account transunion free triple credit report international denied credit free credit report experian payday cash loans direct lenders legal credit appliance repair in dallas tx student loans with no credit check how dispute a resolve credit report issue get equifax credit score free i home easy credit repair triple advantage credit monitoring cancel company credit creche reports ireland how do you get a credit voltage rating in australia quick fix credit baton rouge does getting your does checking credit score lower it tulsa credit repair lawyers nj request where can i get a credit report free where can i get all three credit reports for free key credit repair morton steel buildings what are the the best credit repair companies 2013 quick fix credit solutions commonwealth credit repair in plano tx 100 free annual credit report and score citibank credit card customer service instant free credit report online free annual credit report bad credit checking account second chance free credit reports from all 3 bureaus gov credit repair towing services in wilmington nc credit auto foundation repair facts fast top credit repair companies check my credit report and score free credit checks for renting uk credit repair debt consolidation message boards credit repair san francisco bay area events credit a taux 0 pour une voiture short term money online lenders not brokers what is on a credit report example credit report hearing aid reviews consumer reports credit repair credit repair service credit restoration kit how to how to credit report charge offs what is my credit free credit score bank of america where can i get my once a year free credit report small business reporting to the credit bureaus credit collections usa llc instant bad credit loans for self employed call credit scores explained numbers dates of target credit card thefts top 3 credit reporting agencies new credit file with tradelines how to check your credit score free without a credit card us government credit reports tax credit helpline ni capital advance payday loan scam credit some companies prefer dollars instant cash payday loans online in san diego what is the purpose of the fair credit report act how to raise your credit score fast when you have no credit new tax credit from obama credit report scores ratings cash loans with bad credit rating california consumer credit agencies reporting act online ge money loans uk what does a credit repair what kind of lawyer do i need order credit report by phone equifax statutory how to get a free credit report from experian company annual credit check experian equifax credit reference agency instant cash fast online loans south africa best way to repair my credit score credit repair bankruptcy attorney cincinnati how to repair credit fast after bankruptcy credit check report for landlords dispute suite credit repair system consumer credit reports for business use check your own average credit score canada how do i repair how can i fix my credit after bankruptcy free credit scores and reports online experian free annual credit report form how to get a home loan personal loans for people with bad credit rating quick cash advance loans online with no faxing shell credit card sign on get your free fico credit score online commercial printable credit check applications zero down home loans poor credit us quickest cash advance payday loan member free free credit report credit reports understanding credit scores and ratings big 3 credit companies credit history auto glass repair uk credit sweep do it do it yourself credit repair kits quick car loan without credit check how to get my credit instant credit report free of charge cash advances white pages online australia what site do i get my free yearly credit reports online how to make credit monitoring arrangement how do you check check your credit rating uk 3 free credit free credit reports without credit cards free instant average credit score canada getting a loan loans for people with bad credit canada how to improve credit score help with defaulted loans free online credit v check qld repairing credit score after bankruptcy credit score and report free credit scores from 3 credit bureaus who are the 3 credit score companies heartland credit repair services goldsboro nc what is credit reporting act top credit repair best no contract cell phone companies 2012 best payday loans in georgia bad credit rating lowest 30 year mortgage rates what do credit ratings agencies do credit reports on us companies in the uk business credit cards uk only credit reporting act 2010 malaysia same day loans poor credit history credit repair kelly services temp agency tampa fl is 700 a good credit score in 2014 best credit repair fast results 800 improve credit score tips cancel experian credit report online fixing credit cards with bad credit history best websites to get free credit score student bad credit loans guaranteed approval how create a new credit file short term unsecured bad credit loans sample credit report dispute letter of explanation template credit check online for landlords improving your credit score without credit cards how long does it take how to repair poor credit credit history 10 years ago best credit report free proxy site list faxless real payday advances online how to see how to check credit score in india bad credit credit cards canada instant approval how do i repair my credit score myself credit report bombay company canada credit reporting credit bureaus dispute letters get your credit report online online payday loans bad credit uk what is your how to check credit score without credit card experian free credit score voucher code what is a good credit score number to buy a house credit repair funding for real estate investors fast payday loans instant payday loans online no credit check sample free australian credit report equifax credit report one time fee sample australian credit report sample credit report letter what is credit check otc in sap sd american credit crossroads auto repair waterloo iowa merchant cash advance uk new business credit cards instant approval consumer personal credit reports for businesses bank credit analyst check credit score free trial school first credit union scholarship loans with bad credit and monthly payments where to report how do i report identity theft on facebook loan retirement cash flow calculator check credit history nz best credit reporting site 2013 how to raise your credit score 100 points in one year credit repair companies in woodbury nj how to get annual credit report free government credit repair agencies shreveport la credit card to credit card balance transfer advance cash online loans free credit report commercials 2012 get equifax business credit report best best free credit repair credit cards trans free annual credit report consumers credit report form how to improve credit history uk what is the difference between fico score and credit score equifax 3-bureau credit report and scores how to improve credit rating fast uk credit repair software freeware credit score rating free cwb services cash advance credit repair after low cost bankruptcy in las vegas how to get loan with bad credit in singapore one of the big three in credit reports crossword credit repair with work at home with no upfront fees credit reporting bureaus fraud alerts how long to raise credit score 20 points credit rating background check for free credit seismic consultants group pty. ltd how long will it take to pay off my credit card with minimum payments fix credit report help desk get a loan with bad credit online cash advance mortgage rate wells fargo online payday payday cash advances in wv background background and credit check companies my transunion credit score south africa how to get a free credit rating australia credit monitoring service reviews credit report credit card closed by creditor is my credit keeper good members advantage credit union cancel national credit reports understanding free online credit scores canada credit bureau phone numbers nashville tn ge money quicken loans online payment how is a joint credit score calculated can you get a car loan home loan with bad credit score your experian credit manager how to get a bad credit report removed equifax free credit reports for businesses disability tax credit walker information canada get your credit score for free online what is a fico score and why do lenders use it average credit scores 2011 how to read what does your credit report score mean where to get credit report and score online lenders alliance board of directors credit repair consumer advice uk dispute totally free credit score information how much does it cost to run a credit check on a tenant how to repair your how to check my credit report for free business 3 credit reports equifax credit card repair scams how to get the three credit reports care credit account balance credit agricole placement poor credit score chase business account where can i find my check credit score for free equifax free credit report online unavailable the credit card knife free 3 ways to improve credit score improve your raise credit score 200 points in 30 days check credit report money loans without bank account how to read your transunion credit report statement get free annual credit report and score free instant free credit report and scores lawyers best credit credit cards for credit repair unsecured best place to get 3 all 3 free credit reports and scores experian credit freeze mailing address what is a good credit rating scores meaning first international ameri loans payday loans saskatchewan federal consumer reporting act all 3 credit reports free and scores free what is cash advance where is the security code on a credit card cash loans no credit check fast approval south africa getting how to get free credit report from transunion how to fix bad credit what do i need to buy a house poor credit personal loans canada fast credit repair after bankruptcy debt my credit rating what is poor circulation experian credit report united states government how to improve your credit rating quick how do i get my free credit report sent to me cancel transunion free credit report how long does a default stay on your credit file uk how to repair credit scores yourself fast cash advance loans homes for rent in stone mountain ga recourse liability for false credit reporting wells fargo pay student loans online credit reports free nj tax maps faxless no credit no credit check payday loans online no credit checks fico uk head office experian credit report ?ã2 online payday loans no credit check or fees payday loans with bad credit cards with bad credit and no fees credit cards for credit cards for fair credit high limit cibil behavior emergency report for individuals with disabilities lausd legal credit computer repair in dallas tx how to check where can i get get my credit report free credit report blank map of australia and new zealand how to improve my credit history canada can credit be repaired after bankruptcy totally free credit reports online with no credit card best credit repair lawyers in michigan fast credit repair in 30 days free credit check online without credit card how to improve credit rating kfc menu uk fast food credit repair clifford law firm chicago credit repair fast 37 days to clean credit reviews credit credit plus custom login aspx how to cancel experian credit free trial servus canada credit union check credit on o2 mobile credit ratings yamaha canada r1 care credit canada reviews business bank accounts for bad credit ratings payday loans with bad credit rating transunion experian credit report sample how many free credit check total reports auto loan rate credit score chart fico asvab scores what is good ace national cash advance store hours credit score range uk credit repair programs maryland how can i repair my how can i fix my credit on my own payday loans direct lender bad credit payday loans credit repair milwaukee wi credit repaire identity theft army reporting procedures how to get your equifax free credit report in canada credit rating scale moody s p fitch visa cash advance fees article 14.3 section 104 colorado consumer credit reporting act first advantage credit union employment cash bad credit installment loan online direct lenders equifax credit report scores i want my once a one a year free credit report credit repair couples counseling in arizona free credit rating check usage furniture on finance no credit checks uk credit care register email diy credit repair software reviews sky money advance repair how to improve your credit rating quickly ace payday loans las vegas repairing how to fix bad credit fast and free quick check credit reports review money apply for a loan online uk indian credit rating agency reform act of 2006 canada credit cards for bad credit instant approval how do i begin how to repair my credit fast getting a credit card in japan bad credit credit union loans bank of america citibank credit repair cards cash advance loans furniture stores no credit check georgia credit rating computer repair uk how to check credit view credit report online for free best rated secured credit cards with rewards one time free credit report uk online free credit report uk free credit check online no credit card needed myths of instant credit repair companies canadian three credit report bureaus coles lexington law credit repair reviews cash advance locations in salinas ca what is considered a good credit rating scores scale cash cash advance stores in houston international credit reporting agency us who is the who is the best credit repair company citi login in credit card free credit score canada online pharmacy best improving credit score tips free credit rating experian credit report south africa cash advance payday loan centers pa long term payday loans no credit check canada how to start credit repair business credit repair services in orange county ca what is credit score 775 cash advance pls payday loan requirements fast payday loans no fees national credit repair processing free credit report scammed me transunion experian credit scores explained salary advance or loan format lawsuits against credit scoring agencies can i get a loan with bad credit for a car fha loans with bad credit scores how does do credit repair really works 3 in one 3 in 1 credit report free trial how to boost your credit score in canada tips on steps to fixing your credit score decatur credit repair debt consolidation message boards how to check obtaining credit report for tenants check my credit rating instantly free apply for credit cards loan with bad credit history does disputing credit report how much will paying off credit cards help score alpha omega credit repair harlingen fixing increase credit scores fast credit repair ear nose and throat specialist trenton nj score federal credit union tallahassee fl how long does it take to rebuild credit new credit scoring chart credit reference request form pg given ez credit repair doctors diet program tn how to raise your credit score 20 points fast how long does it take to get credit score up 30 points credit show report report card conventional credit cards for good credit scores uk starting your start my own credit repair business experian dispute phone numbers where to check credit score free yahoo my credit keepers cards credit repair bankruptcy lawyers in las vegas credit collections jobs calgary 50 000 bad credit loan how do you get how to make your credit score better fast free instant credit reports no credit card required free company credit rating check how do you rebuild your credit after bankruptcy citibank landlord credit check services california cash advances mogo payday loans canada fico score estimator calculator cash advances payday payday loans in charlotte nc check my credit hamilton history nz best instant approval credit cards for bad credit credit credit repair franchise opportunities company credit check form letter tv on finance contract phones no credit check uk top online credit repair company reviews free credit google search canada 3 estimate credit score calculator the do it yourself free credit repair kit do utility companies who can report to credit bureaus credit repair mortgage companies in mcallen tx ftc blogs on credit repair services how do you get a free get copy of credit report how do i get my free credit report without signing up for anything allied cash advance store locator cash advance apple store london rapid best credit repair services guaranteed legitimate credit repair companies how to get a contract phone with no credit checks am i entitled to a free credit report once a year credit repair talent agency nyc experian credit scoring explained clean slate free credit repair affiliate program free online checking account no credit check credit repair tree service business for sale repairing improve your credit credit cards how to obtain credit report for free halifax pay loan early how to get personal loan with bad credit in india who can help with credit repair free government free credit report uk only echelle de cual es un buen score de credito credit freeze virginia where to get credit report for tenants how do i repair my credit rating after an iva how to request a yearly free credit report from equifax accurise credit repair nomorerack reviews bbb hdfc sam's credit credit card login credit report actual disability payment amounts transunion canada 3 in 1 credit report with scores how to check my view credit history for free credit score reporting frequency i want to fix my credit but i'm sooo behind how do you do a credit how to run a credit check on a business how long does it take to raise your credit score after bankruptcy credit protection association collections agency casino credit card cash advance services cash advance alex and ani locations in rhode island free copy of credit report free credit report and score from all 3 bureaus 100% guaranteed credit repaired service credit repair contract samples reviews on lexington lexington law firm credit repair fico score credit report does credit repair does the body magic really work credit repair training certification central credit penn credit collection agency credit check companies for arkansas landlords legal rights how to raise your credit how to raise credit score by 20 points credit repair divorce lawyer seattle how to check your how to check credit score without paying experian credit report check credit score for free no credit card elite credit repair tampa bay free copy of transunion credit report canada coast to coast free credit repair las vegas how to raise your credit score overnight how to get free average credit score in canada how do companies fix your credit obtaining a credit credit report for a minor what is the credit score range to buy a car how long does a credit card charge off stay on my credit report how to report to credit bureaus discharging debt as a creditor non profit credit repair phoenix how to get a experian free credit report uk free credit report government president obama website .gov credit score explained commonwealth advantage credit repair inc want to apply for a loan with bad credit best credit report pandora jewelry official site uk payday loans with bad credit uk equifax us credit report bureau international credit reports keith giordano bruno what is experian score tracker on credit keeper credit repair software mac credit euro exchange rate history 10 years the credit repair offices in ga consumer reports credit repair services free credit score how to get free credit report once a year credit computer repair classes houston problems getting credit report ftc ohio credit repair laws free free credit repair letter templates unsecured credit card for poor credit federal credit bureau phone number consumers how to improve your how to raise my credit score fast free default on credit file after 6 years unsecured bad credit credit cards with instant approval how to clean your credit report yourself. how do i get a loan with bad credit for 5000 how can i get a credit check without a credit card tenant credit check what what do they look for in drug test how long will it take ways to repair bad credit http speedy cash payday loans online putting freeze on credit report best 3 bureau credit report monitoring order my 3 credit reports 3 main major credit report bureaus crisil is india;s first credit rating agency incorporated in crisis loan to pay rent advance full best credit history report list of the top credit repair companies how to get a copy of credit report australia how often are your how often are credit reports updated credit reference agency incorrect information apply personal loan online no credit check credit report government how to find credit score wells fargo mortgage annual credit report request service acres credit from suppliers definition a bad credit score range increase credit score 50 points fast how to remove bad credit from your credit report canada payday loans online get cash today loans experian credit report help line where can i get a payday loan with really bad credit cash loans for unemployed on benefits advantage credits uclan cyprus major which consumer credit reporting companies secured top credit repair credit cards unsecured personal loans for fair credit rating ohio credit bureau phone numbers landlords business reporting to credit bureaus same day guaranteed payday loans difference between loan & advances which is the best of the 3 credit reporting bureaus address does usaa does chase do pay advances free credit credit report repair services info child tax credit rates 2012 contract mobile phones for bad credit rating legal credit foundation repair companies in texas fast credit repair services goldsboro nc credit check services ancestry co uk get a free credit report every year free credit repair services free small business websites no fees ever credit report mcat scores what is good how to get a free credit report for my child fast credit repair in texas best credit repair limo service in new york checking a prospective tenant;s credit report government free credit report gov fico credit score ranges between 300 and 850 credit score percentage calculator formula credit cards for bad credit with no annual fee or deposit credit card balance transfer poor credit best credit card to repair your credit request credit report uk credit repair grants to purchase a home mrlandlord online credit checks personal credit report identity theft is pension credit what is a pension fund camden plus credit union opening hours how does a cash advance work what is the card number on a debit card the credit rv repair shop reviews where can i find company credit ratings mastercard cash advance bank locations credit card how to repair credit score how to credit check how to find someone uk free best payday loans cash advance online no credit check best buy credit account online/login credit card with advance cash fast cash payday loans for bad credit how to save experian credit report to computer ez payday advance arkansas city ks guaranteed credit repair fastest what is a credit union service organization quick cash online loans canada building business credit cards quick and easy credit repair west hills ca. credit score unique nerdy techs computer repair services reviews 3 credit agency addresses payday loans bad credit no fees credit reports from all three 3 bureaus fraud alert my credit rating india is very poor country tips on getting when does your credit score update payday loans direct lender list credit reference agency regulations how many consumer reporting agencies are there cash advance stores in durham nc whats a good credit score equifax service tax credit on repairs lean to buildings bad credit low credit rating credit cards uk how to check my credit online credit repair craigslist in little rock arkansas where can i get all 3 credit reports how to check credit score td experian good credit scores explained wrong change information on credit reports can you get a free copy of your credit score legal best credit repair companies reviews how do i get credit report bibles for free by mail how to raise credit score quickly fix credit how to improve your credit score fast for free line of credit for bad credit score how to create a new credit file free credit suisse direct net how to fix your credit to buy a house ovation credit repair attorneys disputing information on a credit report how to check your how to check credit score in canada personal loan with bad credit and no bank account when to dispute credit report information emergency instant cash advance online payday loans car lots with bad credit approval 700 lexington law credit repair login fresh start credit tv repair corpus christi tx credit repair incredible pizza company san antonio tx basic credit repair for dummies book need 5000 bad credit loan payday advances.everest equifax free free credit report south africa pre approved car loans with bad credit and no money down fico ukrajina best place to get credit rating imt credit reports matter ovation credit repair attorneys in nc find the best payday loans online experian foreign company credit reports can companies do credit unions check your credit history credit reports aboriginal business canada suze orman how how to rebuild your credit fast omega lexington credit repair complaints bank of america credit protection forms credit repair electric company in raleigh nc address for the 3 credit bureaus experian free transunion credit report south africa how to fix my credit fast for free us government credit repair company loans for bad credit bad credit loans but not payday loans how to check cpa exam score california credit reporting free how do you how to how to get a credit rating for a company free credit check no credit card details address to request free credit report from equifax omega critical credit repair dallas tx instant yearly credit check for free freeze credit report equifax best way to how to find out credit score for free credit check fico credit score meaning experian contact number 020 credit cards with fico scores on statements ace payday loans no credit check transunion credit report form canada 100 free credit report no credit card fico score free suze orman cash advance locations omaha car loan for bad credit singapore where to get free credit report credit score free safety meeting topics top beacon credit repair inc how to get free how to get credit report by mail where is everest cash advance located online loans for bad credit how to get my credit report australia us government annual free credit report program instant online bad credit instant cash loans approval getting a credit report how to rent a car without a credit card what is the who are the best credit repair companies check credit interest on ee bonds how long do it how long do it take to repair credit loans with bad credit history and no guarantor one time free credit report score transunion how to find out what why is my credit score different consumer reporting federal agencies definition 3 credit reports plus scores credit union loans northern ireland credit repair good time to buy a house 2014 payday loans direct lender no broker credit repair services atlanta ga background check and instant credit report for landlords how to improve credit score lose weight quickly uk cash advance stores in virginia beach how to find your check check credit score for free good credit scores 2012 repair credit how long does it take to improve credit score after late payments credit report free for life total credit computer repair in savannah ga how do i get a credit check on myself payday advance loans without checking account get credit report and scores from 3 agencies cash advance loan buy now pay later catalogs online no credit check credit repair website turnkey store credit from airtel credit checks for employment canada rental credit check form the my credit repair blog credit repair free evaluation forms free credit check no credit card required uk which credit report which travel credit card is best canada accurise inversion credit repair reviews ftc how to repair your credit help advance payday loans personal loans poor credit lenders transunion address letter to request credit report how to build a credit score quickly credit reporting free music studio software downloads usdf horse score check get all 3 credit reports free get my credit report experian credit fix me shipley car consumer report canada tv consumer credit companies uk credit reporting services contract how to get a cash advance how do i get a cash advance on my credit card vip beacon payday loans and cash advance loans credit reports toronto school of business canada how to clean up a credit report for free how do you get your how to get your credit score to 800 getting credit scores raised credit cards with bad credit unsecured alaska airlines bank of america business credit card cheapest way to get credit report and score how to remove incorrect information from your credit report credit consultants debt services nz ltd how to build a credit rating uk cash car loans from chase how to get a free credit how to get free credit report once a year 15 usc section 1681i of the fair credit reporting act of 1970 one of the big big 3 in credit reports experian ultipro payroll login help steps to raising your credit score after bankruptcy how to get a cash advance pay with bill me later free the credit repair agency list of external credit rating agencies in india yearly credit report equifax guaranteed credit repair companies reading how to read a credit report experian check your credit score online free credit repair bankruptcy lawyer seattle free annual credit reports equifax credit check total / allegiant airlines official site full credit get my credit report and score free credit repair flyer pdf credit help usa in dallas how to see get your credit score canada free credit report check with no credit card what is background and credit check for tenants how can i check my credit history in cibil how to read your fixing credit report after bankruptcy credit reporting cobra insurance laws and bankruptcy 72 hour dispute suite credit repair system credit repair best credit free triple experian free credit report log in how to repair your credit how to fix credit score on your own care credit pro credit automotive automotive repair advertising ideas what a good credit score to buy a house credit credit card repair forum need a home loan with bad credit renters credit report for landlords catalogues for really bad credit rating can you get a loan with bad credit loan with a guarantor transunion itc free credit checks in canada fast credit turbine repair services in texas free credit file form car loans poor credit rating business credit checking service credit credit score calculator estimator best way to find out credit score without credit card help repair my credit how can i get a personal loan with bad credit and no bank account top rated credit repair companies bad credit record credit cards suing the credit reporting agencies amex credit secure fico companies that help raise credit score is it possible to get va home loans with bad credit sky blue credit lexington law credit repair better business bureau service my loan cash call pay loans for bad credit get credit scores without membership car loans with no credit checks credit one bank customer service credit card karma phone number credit report collection paid remove from repairing credit after bankruptcy chapter 7 how do i fix my get my credit score for free order experian credit report online find out your credit rating free uk payday online cash advance credit repair in tampa fl credit ems today conference 2014 merrill plus credit card rewards experian dispute phone number 2011 what is the credit score range for american express card raffaella fico incinta chi free copy free copy of credit report equifax your credit union acu repairing bad credit annual free credit reporting free credit report from all three credit agencies where to get a where to get credit report in person instant how fast can credit score increase college student credit cards with bad credit what are the the credit reporting agencies mortgage companies that repair credit ottawa online cash advance today f & a credit union credit report usa free phone service how to get a free credit credit report for a business capital one advance cash fee experience credit reporting bureaus phone numbers how to repair how to raise your credit score fast and free credit repair organization act 2010 westpac credit card cash advance rate a credit card numbers that works in 2012 loans with no credit check nz obtenir score de credit canada how to get your free credit report government site self fix credit repair credit fix me jesus experian free credit report for landlords ford credit canada ltd all all about credit reports payday loans online no no credit check same day loans credit repair academy of experts uk how to get your for free fico credit score dallas the credit repair store credit repair lawyers 10011 aggressive kel credit repair llc car loan with bad credit canada free credit do banks report business accounts to irs personal loans: payday loans for unemployed how can i check my credit score uk how to find out how to check your credit score free credit repair guide by kyle wither wizard 101 tips and tricks free credit report no card details required uk lexington law firm what does credit repair cost advance america cash advance promo codes credit reporting secret service wiki professional credit repair mn how to obtain ordering credit reports on tenants experian canada free annual credit report request form no credit no credit history credit cards canada how to fix your credit score fast in canada where to get a loan with bad credit in ireland lawyers attorney for credit repair find credit score for free no credit card online payday 25k loan direct lenders only fcra yahoo canada photos loans cash in hand definition equifax canada free request free credit report by mail best credit reporting service 2013 icra fico credit rating scale best credit repair dublin bus service 2011 equifax credit monitoring spam email why cant i get free credit report online credit repair medical malpractice lawyers in nyc credit report best credit repair services in texas annual free credit report government mandated free credit score wear check usa lawyer top credit repair books how to improve how to improve your credit score uk 12 month loan cash today credit card from axis bank online payday private loan lenders south africa free credit help website does disputing your credit report work credit report free credit check uk how do you get how to get your credit score only california's consumer credit reporting agencies act government free credit reports no charges who are the 3 the 3 major credit reporting companies
Home BoB Documents Flood v. Kuhn

Like Shoot to Thrill - An AC/DC Tribute on Facebook!

An authentic tribute of AC/DC that covers the best of the Bon Scott era and the best of Brian Johnson's material

Who's Online?

We have 1063 guests online

Atom RSS

Flood v. Kuhn PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 61
PoorBest 
Selection of Docs
Written by Court Ruling   
Sunday, 18 June 1972 12:00

407 U.S. 258

FLOOD v. KUHN ET AL.
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT

No. 71-32.

Argued March 20, 1972
Decided June 19, 1972

Petitioner, a professional baseball player "traded" to another club without his previous knowledge or consent, brought this antitrust suit after being refused the right to make his own contract with another major league team, which is not permitted under the reserve system. The District Court rendered judgment in favor of respondents, and the Court of Appeals affirmed. Held: The longstanding exemption of professional baseball from the antitrust laws, Federal Baseball Club v. National League, 259 U.S. 200 (1922); Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 346 U.S. 356 (1953), is an established aberration, in the light of the Court's holding that other interstate professional sports are not similarly exempt, but one in which Congress has acquiesced, and that is entitled to the benefit of stare decisis. Removal of the resultant inconsistency at this late date is a matter for legislative, not judicial, resolution. Pp. 269-285.

It is a century and a quarter since the New York Nine defeated the Knickerbockers 23 to 1 on Hoboken's [407 U.S. 258, 261] Elysian Fields June 19, 1846, with Alexander Jay Cartwright as the instigator and the umpire. The teams were amateur, but the contest marked a significant date in baseball's beginnings. That early game led ultimately to the development of professional baseball and its tightly organized structure.

And one recalls the appropriate reference to the "World Serious," attributed to Ring Lardner, Sr.; Ernest L. Thayer's "Casey at the Bat"; 4 the ring of "Tinker to [407 U.S. 258, 264] Evers to Chance"; 5 and all the other happenings, habits, and superstitions about and around baseball that made it the "national pastime" or, depending upon the point of view, "the great American tragedy." 6

The petitioner, Curtis Charles Flood, born in 1938, began his major league career in 1956 when he signed a contract with the Cincinnati Reds for a salary of $4,000 for the season. He had no attorney or agent to advise him on that occasion. He was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals before the 1958 season. Flood rose to fame as a center fielder with the Cardinals during the years 1958-1969. In those 12 seasons he compiled a batting average of .293. His best offensive season was 1967 when he achieved .335. He was .301 or better in six of the 12 St. Louis years. He participated in the 1964, 1967, and 1968 World Series. He played error less ball in the field in 1966, and once enjoyed 223 consecutive errorless games. Flood has received seven Golden Glove Awards. He was co-captain of his team from 1965-1969. He ranks among the 10 major league outfielders possessing the highest lifetime fielding averages. [407 U.S. 258, 265]

Flood declined to play for Philadelphia in 1970, despite a $100,000 salary offer, and he sat out the year. After the season was concluded, Philadelphia sold its rights to Flood to the Washington Senators. Washington and the petitioner were able to come to terms for 1971 at a salary of $110,000. 8 Flood started the season but, apparently because he was dissatisfied with his performance, he left the Washington club on April 27, early in the campaign. He has not played baseball since then.

On appeal, the Second Circuit felt "compelled to affirm." 443 F.2d 264, 265 (1971). It regarded the issue of state law as one of first impression, but concluded that the Commerce Clause precluded its application. Judge Moore added a concurring opinion in which he predicted, with respect to the suggested overruling of Federal Baseball and Toolson, that "there is no likelihood that such an event will occur." 9 443 F.2d, at 268, 272. [407 U.S. 258, 269]

A. Federal Baseball Club v. National League, 259 U.S. 200 (1922), was a suit for treble damages instituted by a member of the Federal League (Baltimore) against the National and American Leagues and others. The plaintiff obtained a verdict in the trial court, but the Court of Appeals reversed. The main brief filed by the plaintiff with this Court discloses that it was strenuously argued, among other things, that the business in which the defendants were engaged was interstate commerce; that the interstate relationship among the several clubs, located as they were in different States, was predominant; that organized baseball represented an investment of colossal wealth; that it was an engagement in moneymaking; that gate receipts were divided by agreement between the home club and the visiting club; and that the business of baseball was to be distinguished from the mere playing of the game as a sport for physical exercise and diversion. See also 259 U.S., at 201 -206.

"The business is giving exhibitions of base ball, which are purely state affairs. . . . But the fact that in order to give the exhibitions the Leagues must induce free persons to cross state lines and [407 U.S. 258, 270] must arrange and pay for their doing so is not enough to change the character of the business. . . . [T]he transport is a mere incident, not the essential thing. That to which it is incident, the exhibition, although made for money would not be called trade or commerce in the commonly accepted use of those words. As it is put by the defendants, personal effort, not related to production, is not a subject of commerce. That which in its consummation is not commerce does not become commerce among the States because the transportation that we have mentioned takes place. To repeat the illustrations given by the Court below, a firm of lawyers sending out a member to argue a case, or the Chautauqua lecture bureau sending out lecturers, does not engage in such commerce because the lawyer or lecturer goes to another State.

"If we are right the plaintiff's business is to be described in the same way and the restrictions by contract that prevented the plaintiff from getting players to break their bargains and the other conduct charged against the defendants were not an interference with commerce among the States." 259 U.S., at 208 -209. 10 [407 U.S. 258, 271]

B. Federal Baseball was cited a year later, and without disfavor, in another opinion by Mr. Justice Holmes for a unanimous Court. The complaint charged antitrust violations with respect to vaudeville bookings. It was held, however, that the claim was not frivolous and that the bill should not have been dismissed. Hart v. B. F. Keith Vaudeville Exchange, 262 U.S. 271 (1923). 11

In the years that followed, baseball continued to be subject to intermittent antitrust attack. The courts, however, rejected these challenges on the authority of Federal Baseball. In some cases stress was laid, although unsuccessfully, on new factors such as the development of radio and television with their substantial additional revenues to baseball. 12 For the most part, however, the Holmes opinion was generally and necessarily accepted as controlling authority. 13 And in the 1952 Report of the Subcommittee on Study of Monopoly Power of the House Committee on the Judiciary, H. R. Rep. No. 2002, 82d Cong., 2d Sess., 229, it was said, in conclusion:

"On the other hand the overwhelming preponderance of the evidence established baseball's need for some sort of reserve clause. Baseball's history shows that chaotic conditions prevailed when there was no reserve clause. Experience points to no feasible substitute to protect the integrity of the game or to guarantee a comparatively even competitive [407 U.S. 258, 273] struggle. The evidence adduced at the hearings would clearly not justify the enactment of legislation flatly condemning the reserve clause."

C. The Court granted certiorari, 345 U.S. 963 (1953), in the Toolson, Kowalski, and Corbett cases, cited in nn. 12 and 13, supra, and, by a short per curiam (Warren, C. J., and Black, Frankfurter, DOUGLAS, Jackson, Clark, and Minton, JJ.), affirmed the judgments of the respective courts of appeals in those three cases. Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 346 U.S. 356 (1953). Federal Baseball was cited as holding "that the business of providing public baseball games for profit between clubs of professional baseball players was not within the scope of the federal antitrust laws," 346 U.S., at 357 , and:

". . . If the Toolson holding is to be expanded - or contracted - the appropriate remedy lies with Congress." 348 U.S., at 228 -230.

E. United States v. International Boxing Club, 348 U.S. 236 (1955), was a companion to Shubert and was decided the same day. This was a civil antitrust action against defendants engaged in the business of promoting professional championship boxing contests. Here again the District Court had dismissed the complaint in reliance upon Federal Baseball and Toolson. The Chief Justice observed that "if it were not for Federal Baseball and Toolson, we think that it would be too clear for dispute that the Government's allegations bring the defendants within the scope of the Act." 348 U.S., at 240 -241. He pointed out that the defendants relied on the two baseball cases but also would have been content with a more restrictive interpretation of them than the Shubert defendants, for the boxing defendants argued that the cases immunized only businesses that involve exhibitions of an athletic nature. The Court accepted neither argument. It again noted, 348 U.S., at 242 , that "Toolson neither overruled Federal Baseball nor necessarily reaffirmed all that was said in Federal Baseball." It stated:

"The controlling consideration in Federal Baseball and Hart was, instead, a very practical one - the degree of interstate activity involved in the particular business under review. It follows that stare decisis cannot help the defendants here; for, contrary to their argument, Federal Baseball did not hold that all businesses based on professional sports were outside the scope of the antitrust laws. The issue confronting us is, therefore, not whether a previously granted exemption should continue, [407 U.S. 258, 277] but whether an exemption should be granted in the first instance. And that issue is for Congress to resolve, not this Court." 348 U.S., at 243 .

The Court noted the presence then in Congress of various bills forbidding the application of the antitrust laws to "organized professional sports enterprises"; the holding of extensive hearings on some of these; subcommittee opposition; a postponement recommendation as to baseball; and the fact that "Congress thus left intact the then-existing coverage of the antitrust laws." 348 U.S., at 243 -244.

Mr. Justice Frankfurter, joined by Mr. Justice Minton, dissented. "It would baffle the subtlest ingenuity," he said, "to find a single differentiating factor between other sporting exhibitions . . . and baseball insofar as the conduct of the sport is relevant to the criteria or considerations by which the Sherman Law becomes applicable to a `trade or commerce.'" 348 U.S., at 248 . He went on:

This Court reversed with an opinion by Mr. Justice Clark. He said that the Court made its ruling in Toolson "because it was concluded that more harm would be done in overruling Federal Baseball than in upholding a ruling which at best was of dubious validity." 352 U.S., at 450 . He noted that Congress had not acted. He then said:

"All this, combined with the flood of litigation that would follow its repudiation, the harassment that would ensue, and the retroactive effect of such a decision, led the Court to the practical result that [407 U.S. 258, 279] it should sustain the unequivocal line of authority reaching over many years.

Mr. Justice Frankfurter dissented essentially for the reasons stated in his dissent in International Boxing, [407 U.S. 258, 280] 352 U.S., at 455 . Mr. Justice Harlan, joined by MR. JUSTICE BRENNAN, also dissented because he, too, was "unable to distinguish football from baseball." 352 U.S., at 456 . Here again the dissenting Justices did not call for the overruling of the baseball decisions. They merely could not distinguish the two sports and, out of respect for stare decisis, voted to affirm.

G. Finally, in Haywood v. National Basketball Assn., 401 U.S. 1204 (1971), MR. JUSTICE DOUGLAS, in his capacity as Circuit Justice, reinstated a District Court's injunction pendente lite in favor of a professional basketball player and said, "Basketball . . . does not enjoy exemption from the antitrust laws." 401 U.S., at 1205 . 15

I. Legislative proposals have been numerous and persistent. Since Toolson more than 50 bills have been introduced in Congress relative to the applicability or nonapplicability of the antitrust laws to baseball. 17 A few of these passed one house or the other. Those that did would have expanded, not restricted, the reserve system's exemption to other professional league sports. And the Act of Sept. 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87-331, 75 Stat. 732, and the merger addition thereto effected by the Act of Nov. 8, 1966. Pub. L. 89-800, 6 (b), [407 U.S. 258, 282] 80 Stat. 1515, 15 U.S.C. 1291-1295, were also expansive rather than restrictive as to antitrust exemption. 18

4. Other professional sports operating interstate - football, [407 U.S. 258, 283] boxing, basketball, and, presumably, hockey 19 and golf 20 - are not so exempt.

This emphasis and this concern are still with us. We continue to be loath, 50 years after Federal Baseball and almost two decades after Toolson, to overturn those cases judicially when Congress, by its positive inaction, [407 U.S. 258, 284] has allowed those decisions to stand for so long and, far beyond mere inference and implication, has clearly evinced a desire not to disapprove them legislatively.

The conclusion we have reached makes it unnecessary for us to consider the respondents' additional argument that the reserve system is a mandatory subject of collective bargaining and that federal labor policy therefore exempts the reserve system from the operation of federal antitrust laws. 22

"Without re-examination of the underlying issues, the [judgment] below [is] affirmed on the authority of Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore v. National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, supra, so far as that decision determines that Congress had no intention of including the business of baseball within the scope of the federal antitrust laws." 346 U.S., at 357 .

[ Footnote 2 ] See generally The Baseball Encyclopedia (1969); L. Ritter, The Glory of Their Times (1966); 1 & 2 H. Seymour, Baseball (1960, 1971); 1 & 2 D. Voigt, American Baseball (1966, 1970).

[ Footnote 3 ] These are names only from earlier years. By mentioning some, one risks unintended omission of others equally celebrated.

[ Footnote 4 ] Millions have known and enjoyed baseball. One writer knowledgeable in the field of sports almost assumed that everyone did until, one day, he discovered otherwise:

[ Footnote 7 ] Concededly supported by the Major League Baseball Players Association, the players' collective-bargaining representative. Tr. of Oral Arg. 12.

[ Footnote 8 ] The parties agreed that Flood's participating in baseball in 1971 would be without prejudice to his case.

[ Footnote 9 ] "And properly so. Baseball's welfare and future should not be for politically insulated interpreters of technical antitrust statutes but rather should be for the voters through their elected representatives. If baseball is to be damaged by statutory regulation, let the congressman face his constituents the next November and also face the consequences of his baseball voting record." 443 F.2d, at 272.

Cf. Judge Friendly's comments in Salerno v. American League, 429 F.2d 1003, 1005 (CA2 1970), cert. denied, sub nom. Salerno v. Kuhn, 400 U.S. 1001 (1971):

"We freely acknowledge our belief that Federal Baseball was not one of Mr. Justice Holmes' happiest days, that the rationale of Toolson is extremely dubious and that, to use the Supreme Court's [407 U.S. 258, 269] own adjectives, the distinction between baseball and other professional sports is `unrealistic,' `inconsistent' and `illogical.'. . . While we should not fall out of our chairs with surprise at the news that Federal Baseball and Toolson had been overruled, we are not at all certain the Court is ready to give them a happy despatch."

[ Footnote 10 ] "What really saved baseball, legally at least, for the next half century was the protective canopy spread over it by the United States Supreme Court's decision in the Baltimore Federal League anti-trust suit against Organized Baseball in 1922. In it Justice Holmes, speaking for a unanimous court, ruled that the business of giving baseball exhibitions for profit was not `trade or commerce in the commonly-accepted use of those words' because `personal effort, not related to production, is not a subject of commerce'; nor was it interstate, because the movement of ball clubs across state lines was merely `incidental' to the business. It should be noted that, contrary to what many believe, Holmes did call baseball a business; time and again those who have not troubled to read the text of the decision have claimed incorrectly that the court said baseball was a sport and not a business." 2 H. Seymour, Baseball 420 (1971).

[ Footnote 11 ] On remand of the Hart case the trial court dismissed the complaint at the close of the evidence. The Second Circuit affirmed on the ground that the plaintiff's evidence failed to establish that the interstate transportation was more than incidental. 12 F.2d 341 (1926). This Court denied certiorari, 273 U.S. 703 (1926).

[ Footnote 12 ] Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 101 F. Supp. 93 (SD Cal. 1951), aff'd, 200 F.2d 198 (CA9 1952); Kowalski v. Chandler, 202 F.2d 413 (CA6 1953). See Salerno v. American League, 429 F.2d 1003 (CA2 1970), cert, denied, sub nom. Salerno v. Kuhn, 400 U.S. 1001 (1971). But cf. Gardella v. Chandler, 172 F.2d 402 (CA2 1949) (this case, we are advised, was subsequently settled); Martin v. National League Baseball Club, 174 F.2d 917 (CA2 1949).

[ Footnote 13 ] Corbett v. Chandler, 202 F.2d 428 (Ca6 1953); Portland Baseball Club, Inc. v. Baltimore Baseball Club, Inc., 282 F.2d 680 (CA9 1960); Niemiec v. Seattle Rainier Baseball Club, Inc., 67 F. Supp. 705 (WD Wash. 1946). See State v. Milwaukee Braves, Inc., 31 Wis. 2d 699, 144 N. W. 2d 1, cert. denied, 385 U.S. 990 (1966).

[ Footnote 14 ] The case's final chapter is International Boxing Club v. United States, 358 U.S. 242 (1959).

[ Footnote 15 ] See also Denver Rockets v. All-Pro Management, Inc., 325 F. Supp. 1049, 1060 (CD Cal. 1971); Washington Professional Basketball Corp. v. National Basketball Assn., 147 F. Supp. 154 (SDNY 1956).

[ Footnote 16 ] Neville, Baseball and the Antitrust Laws, 16 Fordham L. Rev. 208 (1947); Eckler, Baseball - Sport or Commerce?, 17 U. Chi. L. Rev. 56 (1949); Comment, Monopsony in Manpower: Organized Baseball Meets the Antitrust Laws, 62 Yale L. J. 576 (1953); P. Gregory, The Baseball Player, An Economic Study, c. 19 (1956); Note, The Super Bowl and the Sherman Act: Professional Team Sports and the Antitrust Laws, 81 Harv. L. Rev. 418 (1967); The Supreme Court, 1953 Term, 68 Harv. L. Rev. 105, 136-138 (1954); The Supreme Court, 1956 Term, 71 Harv. L. Rev. 94, 170-173 (1957); Note, 32 Va. L. Rev. 1164 (1946); Note, 24 Notre Dame Law. 372 (1949); Note, 53 Col. L. Rev. 242 (1953); Note, 22 U. Kan. City L. Rev. 173 (1954); Note, 25 Miss. L. J. 270 (1954); Note, 29 N. Y. U. L. Rev. 213 (1954); Note, 105 U. Pa. L. Rev. 110 (1956); Note, 32 Texas L. Rev. 890 (1954); Note, 35 B. U. L. Rev. 447 (1955); Note, 57 Col. L. Rev. 725 (1957); Note, 23 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 606 (1955); Note, 1 How. L. J. 281 (1955); Note, 26 Miss. L. J. 271 (1955); Note, 9 Sw. L. J. 369 (1955); Note, 29 Temple L. Q. 103 (1955); Note, 29 Tul. L. Rev. 793 (1955); Note, 62 Dick. [407 U.S. 258, 281] L. Rev. 96 (1957); Note, 11 Sw. L. J. 516 (1957); Note, 36 N.C. L. Rev. 315 (1958); Note, 35 Fordham L. Rev. 350 (1966); Note, 8 B. C. Ind. & Com. L. Rev. 341 (1967); Note, 13 Wayne L. Rev. 417 (1967); Note, 2 Rutgers-Camden L. J. 302 (1970); Note, 8 San Diego L. Rev. 92 (1970); Note, 12 B. C. Ind. & Com. L. Rev. 737 (1971); Note, 12 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 859 (1971).

[ Footnote 17 ] Hearings on H. R. 5307 et al. before the Antitrust Subcommittee of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 85th Cong., 1st Sess. (1957); Hearings on H. R. 10378 and S. 4070 before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 85th Cong., 2d Sess. (1958); Hearings on H. R. 2370 et al. before the Antitrust Subcommittee of the House Committee on the Judiciary, 86th Cong., 1st Sess. (1959) (not printed); Hearings on S. 616 and S. 886 before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 86th Cong., 1st Sess. (1959); Hearings on S. 3483 before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 86th Cong., 2d Sess. (1960); Hearings on S. 2391 before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 88th Cong., 2d Sess. (1964); S. Rep. No. 1303, 88th Cong., 2d Sess. (1964); Hearings on S. 950 before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 89th Cong., 1st Sess. (1965); S. Rep. No. 462, 89th Cong., 1st Sess. (1965). Bills introduced in the 92d Cong., 1st Sess., and bearing on the subject are S. 2599, S. 2616, H. R. 2305, H. R. 11033, and H. R. 10825.

[ Footnote 18 ] Title 15 U.S.C. 1294 reads:

[ Footnote 20 ] Deesen v. Professional Golfers' Assn., 358 F.2d 165 (CA9), cert. denied, 385 U.S. 846 (1966).

[ Footnote 21 ] See Brief for Respondent in Federal Baseball, No. 204, O. T. 1921, p. 67, and in Toolson, No. 18, O. T. 1953, p. 30. See also State v. Milwaukee Braves, Inc., 31 Wis. 2d 699, 144 N. W. 2d 1, cert. denied, 385 U.S. 990 (1966).

[ Footnote 22 ] See Jacobs & Winter, Antitrust Principles and Collective Bargaining by Athletes: Of Superstars in Peonage, 81 Yale L. J. 1 (1971), suggesting present-day irrelevancy of the antitrust issue.

In 1922 the Court had a narrow, parochial view of commerce. With the demise of the old landmarks of that era, particularly United States v. Knight Co., 156 U.S. 1 , Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 , and Paul v. Virginia, 8 Wall. 168, the whole concept of commerce has changed.

Under the modern decisions such as Mandeville Island Farms v. American Crystal Sugar Co., 334 U.S. 219 ; United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 ; Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 ; United States v. South-Eastern Underwriters Assn., 322 U.S. 533 , the power of Congress was recognized as broad enough to reach all phases of the vast operations of our national industrial system. [407 U.S. 258, 287] An industry so dependent on radio and television as is baseball and gleaning vast interstate revenues (see H. R. Rep. No. 2002, 82d Cong., 2d Sess., 4, 5 (1952)) would be hard put today to say with the Court in the Federal Baseball Club case that baseball was only a local exhibition, not trade or commerce.

If congressional inaction is our guide, we should rely upon the fact that Congress has refused to enact bills broadly exempting professional sports from antitrust regulation. 3 H. R. Rep. No. 2002, 82d Cong., 2d Sess. [407 U.S. 258, 288] (1952). The only statutory exemption granted by Congress to professional sports concerns broadcasting rights. 15 U.S.C. 1291-1295. I would not ascribe a broader exemption through inaction than Congress has seen fit to grant explicitly.

There can be no doubt "that were we considering the question of baseball for the first time upon a clean slate" 4 we would hold it to be subject to federal antitrust regulation. Radovich v. National Football League, 352 U.S. 445, 452 . The unbroken silence of Congress should not prevent us from correcting our own mistakes.

[ Footnote 1 ] While I joined the Court's opinion in Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 346 U.S. 356 , I have lived to regret it; and I would now correct what I believe to be its fundamental error.

[ Footnote 2 ] Had this same group boycott occurred in another industry, Klor's, Inc. v. Broadway-Hale Stores, Inc., 359 U.S. 207 ; United States v. Shubert, 348 U.S. 222 ; or even in another sport, Haywood v. National Basketball Assn., 401 U.S. 1204 (DOUGLAS, J., in chambers); Radovich v. National Football League, 352 U.S. 445 ; United States v. International Boxing Club, 348 U.S. 236 ; we would have no difficulty in sustaining petitioner's claim.

[ Footnote 3 ] The Court's reliance upon congressional inaction disregards the wisdom of Helvering v. Hallock, 309 U.S. 106, 119 -121, where we said:

"Nor does want of specific Congressional repudiations . . . serve as an implied instruction by Congress to us not to reconsider, in the light of new experience . . . those decisions . . . . It would require very persuasive circumstances enveloping Congressional silence to [407 U.S. 258, 288] debar this Court from re-examining its own doctrines. . . . Various considerations of parliamentary tactics and strategy might be suggested as reasons for the inaction of . . . Congress, but they would only be sufficient to indicate that we walk on quicksand when we try to find in the absence of corrective legislation a controlling legal principle."

And see United States v. South-Eastern Underwriters Assn., 322 U.S. 533, 556 -561.

[ Footnote 4 ] This case gives us for the first time a full record showing the reserve clause in actual operation.

To non-athletes it might appear that petitioner was virtually enslaved by the owners of major league baseball clubs who bartered among themselves for his services. But, athletes know that it was not servitude that bound petitioner to the club owners; it was the reserve system. The essence of that system is that a player is bound to the club with which he first signs a contract for the rest of his playing days. 2 He cannot escape from the club except by retiring, and he cannot prevent the club from assigning his contract to any other club.

Petitioner brought this action in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. He alleged, among other things, that the reserve system was an unreasonable restraint of trade in violation of [407 U.S. 258, 290] federal antitrust laws. 3 The District Court thought itself bound by prior decisions of this Court and found for the respondents after a full trial. 309 F. Supp. 793 (1970). The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed. 443 F.2d 264 (1971). We granted certiorari on October 19, 1971, 404 U.S. 880 , in order to take a further look at the precedents relied upon by the lower courts.

This is a difficult case because we are torn between the principle of stare decisis and the knowledge that the decisions in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, 259 U.S. 200 (1922), and Toolson v. New York Yankees, Inc., 346 U.S. 356 (1953), are totally at odds with more recent and better reasoned cases.

In Federal Baseball Club, a team in the Federal League brought an antitrust action against the National and American Leagues and others. In his opinion for a unanimous Court, Mr. Justice Holmes wrote that the business being considered was "giving exhibitions of base ball, which are purely state affairs." 259 U.S., at 208 . Hence, the Court held that baseball was not within the purview of the antitrust laws. Thirty-one years later, the Court reaffirmed this decision, without reexamining it, in Toolson, a one-paragraph per curiam opinion. Like this case, Toolson involved an attack on the reserve system. The Court said:

"The business has . . . been left for thirty years to develop, on the understanding that it was not [407 U.S. 258, 291] subject to existing antitrust legislation. The present cases ask us to overrule the prior decision and, with retrospective effect, hold the legislation applicable. We think that if there are evils in this field which now warrant application to it of the antitrust laws it should be by legislation." Id., at 357.

"Antitrust laws in general, and the Sherman Act in particular, are the Magna Carta of free enterprise. They are as important to the preservation of economic freedom and our free-enterprise system as the Bill of Rights is to the protection of our fundamental personal freedoms. . . . Implicit in such freedom is the notion that it cannot be foreclosed with respect to one sector of the economy [407 U.S. 258, 292] because certain private citizens or groups believe that such foreclosure might promote greater competition in a more important sector of the economy." United States v. Topco Associates, Inc., 405 U.S. 596, 610 (1972).

This Court has faced the interrelationship between the antitrust laws and the labor laws before. The decisions make several things clear. First, "benefits to organized labor cannot be utilized as a cat's-paw to pull employer's chestnuts out of the antitrust fires." United States v. Women's Sportswear Manufacturers Assn., 336 U.S. 460, 464 (1949). See also Allen Bradley Co. v. Local Union No. 3, 325 U.S. 797 (1945). Second, the very nature of a collective-bargaining agreement mandates that the parties be able to "restrain" trade to a greater degree than management could do unilaterally. United States v. Hutcheson, 312 U.S. 219 (1941); United Mine Workers v. Pennington, 381 U.S. 657 (1965); Amalgamated Meat Cutters v. Jewel Tea, 381 U.S. 676 (1965); cf., Teamsters Union v. Oliver, 358 U.S. 283 (1959). Finally, it is clear that some cases can be resolved only by examining the purposes and the competing interests of the labor and antitrust statutes and by striking a balance.

It is apparent that none of the prior cases is precisely in point. They involve union-management agreements that work to the detriment of management's competitors. In this case, petitioner urges that the reserve system works to the detriment of labor. [407 U.S. 258, 295]

[ Footnote 2 ] As MR. JUSTICE BLACKMUN points out, the reserve system is not novel. It has been employed since 1887. See Metropolitan Exhibition Co. v. Ewing, 42 F. 198, 202-204 (CC SDNY 1890). The club owners assert that it is necessary to preserve effective competition and to retain fan interest. The players do not agree and argue that the reserve system is overly restrictive. Before this lawsuit was instituted, the players refused to agree that the reserve system should be a part of the collective-bargaining contract. Instead, the owners and players agreed that the reserve system would temporarily remain in effect while they jointly investigated possible changes. Their activity along these lines has halted pending the outcome of this suit.

[ Footnote 3 ] Petitioner also alleged a violation of state antitrust laws, state civil rights laws, and of the common law, and claimed that he was forced into peonage and involuntary servitude in violation of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Because I believe that federal antitrust laws govern baseball, I find that state law has been pre-empted in this area. Like the lower courts, I do not believe that there has been a violation of the Thirteenth Amendment.

[ Footnote 4 ] In the past this Court has not hesitated to change its view as to what constitutes interstate commerce. Compare United States v. Knight Co., 156 U.S. 1 (1895), with Mandeville Island Farms v. American Crystal Sugar Co., 334 U.S. 219 (1948), and United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 (1941).

[ Footnote 6 ] The lower courts did not reach the question of whether, assuming the antitrust laws apply, they have been violated. This should be considered on remand.

[ Footnote 7 ] Cf. United States v. Hutcheson, 312 U.S. 219 (1941).

[ Footnote 8 ] Jacobs & Winter, Antitrust Principles and Collective Bargaining by Athletes: Of Superstars in Peonage, 81 Yale L. J. 1, 22 (1971). [407 U.S. 258, 297]

 
 
Banner

Poll

Should MLB Force Jeffery Loria to Sell the Marlins?